AJ Life Sci. 2021, 4 (1): 112-118

Identification of Vancomycin Resistance Determinants in Twin Cities of Rawalpindi/Islamabad

Sidra Rehmat Ullah 1,Saadia Andleeb1,Taskeen Raza 1 and Khalid Mehmood *2

1 Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Atta ur Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
2 Department of Pharmacy, Abbottabad University of Science & Technology, Havelian, Pakistan.


Vancomycin resistant Enterococci have emerged rapidly in the recent years leading to treatment failure. The aim of this work was to identify vancomycin resistance determinants; vanA and vanB genes in Enterococci. The blood, urine and throat samples were collected from 150 patients from local hospitals of twin cities of Rawalpindi/Islamabad. Forty-nine phenotypically confirmed isolates were further confirmed by PCR amplification for vancomycin determinants (genes for vanA and vanB) for vancomycin resistant Enterococci. Dependence and frequency distribution of VRE and VSE bacteraemia with respect to age, gender and source was also studied. Phenotypically resistant strains were positive for vanA while negative for vanB. vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) could be isolated more from urine samples as compared to blood whereas vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) was found more prevalent in the blood samples (p value= 0.000). VRE was more frequently isolated from patients aged 50 or above whereas VSE prevalence was same in both age groups (p value=0.002). Gender was not found to have any significant impact on VRE or VSE bacteraemia. This study reports vanA gene cluster responsible for resistance in Pakistani population and frequently isolation of VRE from blood samples.

Keywords: Enterococcus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococci, Pakistan




October 27, 2020

Received Revised

July 23, 2021


July 24, 2021

Available Online

September 11, 2021

Corresponding author email:


How to Cite

Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences , ISSN (online): 2663-1040, Published by Abasyn University