1 Institue of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan 2 Department of Allied Health Sciences, Superior University Lahore, Pakistan 3 Selmore Pharmaceuticals Private Limited, Lahore, Pakistan
Hepatitis A is an infectious disorder of the liver prompted by Hepatovirus Avirus (HAV). It is a kind of viral hepatitis. It has naked nucleocapsid viruswith a single stranded, positive polarity RNA. It is devoid of virionpolymerase and has a single serotype. Transmission is via fecal-oral route.In contrast to Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus, blood bornetransmission of HAV is infrequent because viremia is short-term and of lowtiter. Mostly instances, have few or no signs, specifically in younger ones.The virus replicates in the gastrointestinal tract and then spreads to theliver during a short-term viremic period. HAV is not cytopathic for thehepatocyte. Hepatocellular injury is triggered by immune attack by thecytotoxic T cells. The time among the infection and signs, in patients thatprogress them, is among two and six weeks. When the signs occur, theycommonly last 8 weeks and might encompass nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,jaundice, pain in abdomen and fever. Around 10 to 15 percent of patientsundergo a recurrence of signs at some stage in the six months after thepreliminary infection. Acute liver failure may also seldom occur, with thisbeing extra regular in elderly. No antiviral medication is available. The mostsuitable test to diagnose acute infection is IgM antibody. Isolation of thevirus from clinical samples is not done. Vaccine consists of killed virus.Administration of immune globulin in the course of the incubation canalleviate the disease.
Keywords: Hepatitis A; Risk factors; Prevalence; Pakistan; Vaccination; Hygiene