1 Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy 2 Department of Life Science, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, 53100, Siena, Italy
Synthetic biology (SynBio) is a very vast field of research that produces newbiological parts, appliances, and systems. It is the application of engineeringprinciples to design and construct new bio-based biologicals, devices andsystems that exhibit functions not present in nature or to redesign theexisting systems to perform specific tasks. Synthetic biology varies fromother disciplines including system biology, biotechnology and geneticengineering. For instance, while system biology focuses on obtaining aquantitative understanding of the naturally existing biology systems, thesynthetic biology focuses on engineering, designing, and synthesis of newnovel biological functions utilizing the biological information drawn fromsystems biology analysis. SB utilizes computer algorithms to alter geneticsequence before synthesizing them in the laboratory. Moreover, SBemployed gene shuffling and refactoring tools that may alter thousands ofgenetic elements of an organism at once. In the present article, we aim todiscuss the basic approaches of synthetic biology. Furthermore, theapplication of synthetic biology on biomedical science, drug discoverydevelopment, bioenergy and agriculture will also be discussed. Finally thechallenges facing the researchers in the field of synthetic biology such asthose technical, ethical and safety will be also highlighted.
Keywords: SB; Synthetic Biology, Bio-based Biological, DNA recombinant technology, Biomedical applications