Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls <p>The Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences (AJLS) (eISSN 2663-1040) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal of free publication, published under Abasyn University, Pakistan. AJLS is a multidisciplinary journal, which publishes high quality, original and the most important scientific advances in life sciences. The emphasis is on publishing quality novel research papers, full-length review, mini-reviews and short communications in specific areas of Life Sciences.</p> <p>AJLS covers various disciplines of life sciences, such as:</p> <ul> <li>Biotechnology</li> <li>Microbiology</li> <li>Molecular Biology</li> <li>Bioinformatics</li> <li>Pharmaceutical</li> <li>Biomedical Sciences</li> <li>Nanobiology</li> <li>Biochemistry</li> <li>Botany</li> <li>Zoology</li> <li>Environmental Sciences</li> <li>Genetics</li> <li>Agriculture</li> </ul> en-US <p>The content of AJLS is licensed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).</p> editor.ajls@abasyn.edu.pk (Dr. Muhammad Faisal Siddiqui) sufi.ali.ahmad@abasyn.edu.pk (Sufi Ali Ahmad) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Prevalence of Enteric Fever in the Local Population of Rawalpindi And Islamabad Pakistan https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/58 <p>Enteric fever is the massive bacterial disease in global and caused by <em>Salmonella typhi</em>. It is known that humans are the only natural host and reservoir for <em>S. typhi</em>. That transmits enteric fever through the fecal-oral route through the ingestion of infected water and food. The prevalence rate is high in South Central and South-East Asian countries recorded as (&gt;100/100,000) cases per year. The aim of designing of the present study, there is no specific epidemiology report present at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Total of 500 blood samples were collected from patients showing sign and symptoms of enteric fever. Sample collected from different government and private hospitals, medical laboratories, and health organizations from November 2013 to April 2014. Immuno chromatographic technique (ICT) was used for the detection of enteric fever via typhoid test kit. Out of 500 samples, 368 (73.6 %) patients were found serologically negative while 132 (26.4%) were positive. Among the positive samples, 42 (31.8%) were adult samples that included 25 IgM, 12 IgG and 5 both IgM and IgG. Infected children of age 13-15 years were 30 (22.72%) with IgM 19, IgG 8 and both IgM and IgG 3. Thirty-one (31) samples were positive among children of age group 5-12 years with 15 IgM positive, 10 IgG positive and 3 both IgM and IgG positive. Furthermore, 29 (21.96 %) were positive among children of age group 1-4 years. This high incidence of enteric fever among susceptible outdoor patients and laboratories patient show that enteric fever is a serious health problem in Rawalpindi, Islamabad. Preventive measures such as vaccination, maintaining food hygiene and awareness campaign are required in the twin cities of Rawalpindi-Islamabad for the eradication of enteric fever. </p> Ijaz Ahmad, Hayat Khan, Gohar Rahman, Saddam, Gouhar Ali, Rafiullah Copyright (c) 2020 Ijaz Ahmad, Hayat Khan, Gohar Rahman, Saddam, Gouhar Ali, Rafiullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/58 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Immunochromatographic Test and Third Generation ELISA for Elucidating the Existence and Risk Factors of Anti-HCV Antibodies among Blood Donors from Swabi Pakistan https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/55 <p>This cross sectional study was designed to investigate the frequency and potential risk factors of anti-HCV among blood donors as well as to elucidate the most sensitive screening method for routine practice in Bacha Khan Medical Complex (BKMC) Shahmansoor and District Head Quarter (DHQ) Hospital Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 3390 male volunteer blood donors with age range 18-55 years were screened for HCV-Ab through an immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and 3rd generation-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of ICT and ELISA was also evaluated by comparing their results. Among 3390 donors, 59 (1.74 %) were found positive for HCV-Ab through ICT and 62 (1.82 %) were HCV-Ab positive by ELISA assay. The highest frequency rate (40.3 %) was observed among donors within the age group of 18-30 years followed by (27.4 %) among 31-40 years, (17.7 %) among 41-50 years and the lowest frequency (14.5 %) was found among 51-55 years. Dental treatment (37.0 %) was significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity followed by blood transfusion (20.9 %), major surgery (14.5 %), travel abroad and unknown reason (11.2 %) for each and the lowest anti-HCV association was observed among donors who shaved by the barbers (4.8 %). The results from ICT and ELISA indicated that ELISA is a more sensitive, and reliable technique for routine screening of blood donors to control infectious diseases particularly HCV infection. </p> Muhammad Israr, Fawad Ali, Maliha Sarfraz , Arif Nawaz , Umara Afzal , Rashid Iqbal, Sidra Mubeen, Shakir Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Israr, Fawad Ali, Maliha Sarfraz , Arif Nawaz , Umara Afzal , Rashid Iqbal, Sidra Mubeen, Shakir Ullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/55 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Fungal Load, Coliform and Aflatoxins in Wheat Flour of Lahore Metropolitan City https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/82 <p>In Pakistan, wheat flour is mostly utilized for making flat breads locally called chapattis. Other uses of wheat flour are in bakery products manufacturing. It is an important constituent of daily diet of people. Shelf life of wheat flour is one of the most important factors for its quality determination. Wheat flour is often tainted with pathogenic fungal species and their toxic secondary metabolites called Mycotoxins. The present study was designed to make a comparative analysis of Microbiological quality (fungal load and total coliform count) and detection of aflatoxins in raw and branded whole wheat flour samples of Lahore Metropolitan city. Total 100 samples were collected for determination of fungal load, coliform and aflatoxins. The Standardized methods were applied to count the colony forming units of fungal species and total coliform bacteria respectively. The results indicated both branded and raw whole wheat flour groups were of good quality for human consumption. However, the microbiological quality of branded whole flour was better than raw whole wheat flour. There was a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in fungal load of raw and branded whole wheat flour. Similarly, coliform bacteria were only cultured form the samples of raw flour. In the last stage of study, aflatoxins level was analysed by using a commercially available kit. All the samples of both raw and branded whole wheat flours were negative for aflatoxins detection. The overall quality of raw and branded whole wheat flours in Lahore city is satisfactory for consumers.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Usman Siddiq, Arfan Ahmad, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Mamoona Chaudhary, Irshad Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 Hafiz Muhammad Usman Siddiq, Arfan Ahmad, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Mamoona Chaudhary, Irshad Hussain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/82 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Catalase Activity in Response to Metals in Freshwater Fish Catla catla https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/79 <p>Catalase activity in response to binary metal mixture of Zn + Ni was studied in gills, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of <em>Catla catla</em>. A total of 30 fish fingerlings were kept in two glass aquaria (15 in controlled condition and 15 in metal mixture containing aquarium) for the period of two weeks. After the completion of the trial period, fish were dissected for different organ collection. The extracted organs were homogenized in phosphate buffer (50 mM; pH 7.0). The activity of catalase was determined by absorption at 240 nm by using the standard methods. The inferences showed higher catalase activity in liver (223.33 ±1 UmL<sup>-1</sup>), kidney (163.33 ± 0.7 UmL<sup>-1</sup>), gills (123.33 ±0.9 UmL<sup>-1</sup>) and cardiac (120 ±3 UmL<sup>-1</sup>) tissues of Zn + Ni treated fish in comparison to controlled fish liver (116.66 ±2 UmL<sup>-1</sup>), kidney (101.66 ±1 UmL<sup>-1</sup>), gills (96.66 ±0.66 UmL<sup>-1</sup>) and cardiac tissues (70 ±0.33 UmL-<sup>1</sup>) in this study. Statistically, significant differences at <em>p ≤ 0.05</em> was observed for catalase activity between Zn + Ni stressed and control fish groups. While, in different organs of both group of fishes the catalase activity order was observed as hepatic &gt; renal &gt; gills &gt; heart. Findings of this study would be helpful in monitoring aquatic ecosystems using fish antioxidant system which acts as a bio-indicator of metal contamination.</p> <p> </p> Tanveer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Tanveer Ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/79 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Investigation of Chemical and Physical Properties of Seven Types of Edible Oils of District Mansehra with Respect to the Recommended Standardshe Recommended Standards https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/35 <p>This research was aimed to assess the physicochemical properties of seven edible oils, i.e., almond oil, castor oil, cooking oil, mustard oil, pumpkin oil, black seed oil and egg oil collected from local market, Mansehra. Their chemical and physical properties were also compared to the recommended levels set as a standard by WHO/FAO to find out whether they are suitable and safe to be used by human beings. Among the chemical characteristics, acid values, saponification values and peroxide values were determined while the physical properties that were studied included density, specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content and viscosity. All these assays were performed using standardized assays/protocols. From the results, it can be illustrated that most of the physicochemical parameters are in line with the standard values as evident from the results. However, some value shows deviation, for instance, the acid values of all studied oil samples except almond oil, cooking oil and pumpkin oil exceed the recommended value of 0.6. In addition, the saponification value of almond oil and black seed oil, while peroxide value of pumpkin oil are above the recommended range. So, it can be concluded that most of these oils whose studied parameters are according to permissible limits are safe for human consumption.</p> Raza, Amir Hayat, Kamil Khan, Shakeel Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Raza, Amir Hayat, Kamil Khan, Shakeel Ahmad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/35 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Selenium resistant bacteria enhance Zea mays growth parameters under selenium stress https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/99 <p>Heavy metals normally accumulate in the environment and as a result they create various problems to life, especially to plants. In this study two selenium resistant bacteria, <em>Bacillus pumils </em>strain CrK08 and <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em> strain AsK03 were checked for their effect in enhancing growth of <em>Zea mays</em> in the clay pots experiment, under selenium stress. Both strains significantly promoted root length in control and in autoclaved soil. Number of roots from plant base was reduced in control and autoclave soil respectively. Moreover, the fresh weight and dry weight were reduced in control and autoclave soil plants. In selenium treated plants, fresh weight was high than in the non-treated plants. However, Strains also produced an increase in soluble protein content. Indole acetic acid (IAA) content was enhanced to and, while acid phosphatase activity was significantly lower in inoculated plants than the controls and peroxidase content reduced. Selenium content in control plants was high as compared to treated plants. So, these strains promote plant growth under Se stress (17 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) in soil.</p> Ali Rehman, Anam , Hira Saleem , Hafsa Tariq ; Saima Javed, Muhammad Faisal Copyright (c) 2020 Ali Rehman, Anam , Hira Saleem , Hafsa Tariq ; Saima Javed, Muhammad Faisal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/99 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Bio efficacy of Eruca sativa oil against Callosobruchus chinensis on chickpea https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/72 <p>Pulse beetle, <em>Callosobruchus chinensis</em> L. responsible for destroying qualitative and quantitative losses to most stored grains. Once the damage done by the beetle, the grains lose their nutritional and germination capacity and become unfit for either consumption. Seed treatment still mainly relies on heavy synthetic chemicals which cause residual effect and threaten public health. However, the natural plant products containing insecticidal activity have recently displayed a great scope as they tend to come up with low mammalian toxicity, less effect on environmental and broad public adoption. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with variable doses of <em>Eruca sativa</em> L. seed oil (0.5 ml, 1 ml, and 1.5 ml) against <em>C. chinensis</em>. The data were recorded for corrected mortality, repellent effects, and seed protectant at different intervals (24, 48, 72 hrs and 1 week). We found the higher corrected mortality (32.65%) at 1.5ml after 24 hrs. Later, the mortality percentage decreased at different intervals but remained higher at maximum dose of <em>E. sativa</em>. However, the overall highest mortality of <em>C. chinensis</em> was 50.00% at 1.5 ml and the lowest 41.00% at 0.5 ml. Meanwhile, the index showed repellent effect with R.I value &lt;1 in all treatments at different intervals. The seed protectant data showed that the minimum number of 1.66±0.33 eggs laid on treated seeds at 1.5 ml and 8.00±1.15 eggs on untreated seeds in choice experiment. In total, maximum number of 17.33±4.93 eggs laid at 0.5 ml in choice experiment and minimum 4.83±1.51 eggs at 1.5 ml. However, in no choice experiment, the maximum number of 51.00±4.58 eggs on control treatment and minimum 0.33±0.33 eggs on 1.5 ml were laid by pulse beetle. The most effective dose of 1.5ml caused maximum mortality, repellent and seed protectant.</p> Agha Mushtaque Ahmed, Ali Zachi Abdul Qadeer, Jamal Uddin Hajano, Aqeel Alyousuf, Shahjahan Rajput, Imran Ali Rajput, Din Muhammad Soomro, Rawat Khan Rind Copyright (c) 2020 Agha Mushtaque Ahmed, Ali Zachi Abdul Qadeer, Jamal Uddin Hajano, Aqeel Alyousuf, Shahjahan Rajput, Imran Ali Rajput, Din Muhammad Soomro, Rawat Khan Rind https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/72 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Genetic variability and heritability estimates of morphological traits in F2 populations of rapeseed (Brassica carinata L.) https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/96 <p>This study aimed to estimate genetic variability, heritability, and genetic advance for morphological characters in <em>Brassica carinata</em> L. A total of 22 genotypes comprised of six parental lines and their 16 bulk F<sub>2</sub> populations were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2013-14. Data were recorded on days to 50% flowering, primary branches plant<sup>-1</sup>, main raceme length, pods on main raceme, pod length, number of seeds pod<sup>-1</sup>, 100-seed weight, and seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup>. Significant genetic differences were observed for all the traits studied. Among parental lines, C-93 performed better for primary branches plant<sup>-1</sup> (11 branches), main raceme length (59.57 cm), pods on main raceme<sup>-1 </sup>(33 pods), and seeds pod<sup>-1</sup> (15 seeds), C-95 for pod length (4.04 cm) and seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup> (12.26 g). Among F<sub>2</sub> populations, C-97 x C-88 performed better for main raceme length (73.20 cm), pods on main raceme (41 pods), C-88 x C-93 for pod length (4.95 cm), seeds pod<sup>-1</sup> (18 seeds), and seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup> (14.71 g). Moderate (30 &lt; h<sup>2</sup> ≤ 60) to high (h<sup>2</sup> &gt; 60) broad-sense heritability was observed for all morphological traits with maximum genetic advance, hence indicated that selection could be effective in the early generation for the improvements of these studied traits. Generally, cross combinations C-88 x C-93, C-97 x C-95, C-90 x C-93, and C-97 x C-88 performed better than their parental lines for morphological (primary branches plant<sup>-1</sup>, seeds pod<sup>-1</sup>, and seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup>) traits and could be exploited for varietal development in future brassica breeding programs.</p> Muhammad Nauman, Farhatullah, Nazir Ahmad, Fazli Ahad, Touheed Iqbal, Iqbal Hussain, Muhammad Noor Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Nauman, Farhatullah, Nazir Ahmad, Fazli Ahad, Touheed Iqbal, Iqbal Hussain, Muhammad Noor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/96 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Identification, Screening, and Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Microbiota in the guts of Epinephelus sp. https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/83 <p>Bacterial microbiota is predominantly present in all living organisms. Most of the bacteria present in the gut of the fish are contaminating the food chain. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and characterize the bacteria in the gut of <em>Epinephelus</em> sp. in the red sea of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Bacteria were isolated from the guts of 10 fish samples and were grown on Luria Bertani (LB) and nutrient agar media. Total thirteen bacterial colonies were screen out by morphological identification i.e., color, shape, structure, etc. which were further reduced to 7 colonies e.g., IF001, IF002, F003, IF004, F005, IF006, and IF007. The bacterial isolates were also identified through molecular identification using 16S-rDNA sequencing. The genomic DNA was isolated and was sequenced using the Sanger® sequencing method. BLAST alignment results that IF001 and IF002 were members <em>Bacillus</em> sp. IF003 was a strain of <em>photobacterium damselae</em>, IF004 and IF006 were strains of <em>Rothia endophytica</em>, IF005 was a strain of <em>Acinetobacter</em> <em>bouvetiiand</em> IF007 was belonged to <em>Shewanella oneidensis</em>. The molecular identification confirmed the identification of bacterial isolates in the <em>Epinephelus</em> sp. obtained from the red sea.</p> Ihsan Ullah Copyright (c) 2020 Ihsan Ullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/83 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Antifungal resistance modulation of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from brooder pneumonia affected birds by Eucalyptus globulus extracts https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/98 <p>Brooder pneumonia is a common respiratory problem during brooding period of poultry. It is most frequently caused by <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em>. Use of azole drugs for treatment and prophylaxis results in resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether the phytochemicals of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> are modulating resistance in <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em>. Lung samples n = 50 of dead broiler chicks were collected from different farms of Lahore. Out of 50 lung samples 28 % (14) were considered positive for <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em> after observing their macroscopic, microscopic characteristics and by performing PCR by amplifying ITS1-ITS4 gene (597 base pairs) and <em>RodA</em> gene (313 base pairs). Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test was performed 14 isolates (100 %) were resistant towards both Fluconazole and Ketoconazole whereas 11 (78.57 %) were resistant towards Itraconazole. <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> leaves were collected, and these were identified. Three solvent extracts were prepared. Maximum yield was of ethanolic extract. Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion method. Highest antifungal activity was shown by <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> Ethanol followed by chloroform and hexane extract showed no activity against any isolate then minimum inhibitory concentration of plant extracts that previously showed antifungal activity against isolates were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Modulation effect was checked by combining antifungal drug one by one with subinhibitory concentration of plant extract evaluated previously by broth microdilution method. 5 isolates were subjected into this experiment which are all sensitive towards <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> ethanol and chloroform extracts tested previously in agar well diffusion test and MIC values were also evaluated. It was concluded that when Itraconazole was combined with <em>E. globulus</em> Ethanol extract then resistance was modified. Data of modulation was analyzed by One-way ANOVA and it reported P value of &lt;0.05. It was synergistic inhibitory effect when Itraconazole was combined with <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> Ethanol extract.</p> Rana Haider Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Rana Haider Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/98 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 In Silico Identification of Novel Acute Myeloid Leukemia Associated Missense SNPs in Human CEBPA Gene https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/57 <p>Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in <em>CEBPA</em> gene have been found to be associated with cancer especially Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Therefore, the identification of functional and structural polymorphisms in <em>CEBPA</em> is important to study and discover therapeutics targets and potential malfunctioning. For this purpose, several bioinformatics tools were used for the identification of disease-associated nsSNPs, which might be vital for the structure and function of <em>CEBPA</em>, making them extremely important. <em>In silico</em> tools used in this study included SIFT, PROVEAN, PolyPhen2, SNP&amp;GO and PhD-SNP, followed by ConSurf and I-Mutant. Protein 3D modelling was carried out using I-TASSER and MODELLER v9.22, while GeneMANIA and string were used for the prediction of gene-gene interaction in this regard. From our study, we found that the L345P, R333C, R339Q, V328G, R327W, L317Q, N292S, E284A, R156W, Y108N and F82L mutations were the most crucial SNPs. Additionally, the gene-gene interaction showed the genes having correlation with <em>CEBPA’s</em> co-expressions and importance in several pathways. In future, these 11 mutations should be investigated while studying diseases related to <em>CEBPA</em>, especially for AML. Being the first of its kind, future perspectives are proposed in this study, which will help in precision medicine. Animal models are of great significance in finding out <em>CEBPA</em> effects in disease.</p> Mudassir Khan, Mehran Akhtar, Maharij Haroon Jadoon, Dilawar Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Mudassir Khan, Mehran Akhtar, Maharij Haroon Jadoon, Dilawar Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/57 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Susceptibility to HIV Infection in Local Population of Lahore Pakistan https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/36 <p>A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is observed at -308 position of the promoter region of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α) gene due to which TNF is categorized into TNF1 and TNF2 allele. TNF2 allele is associated with higher concentration of TNF- α which in turn is associated with HIV infection. In order to know the association between TNF2 and HIV infection n =75 HIV positive samples and n=15 HIV negative samples were observed for TNF polymorphism. It was found that among the infected patients 53 patients had TNF2.The total percentage of the patients and controls having TNF2 allele was found to be 63.34.%. Chi square value was significant showing that there is a strong correlation between HIV susceptibility and TNF SNPs (-308) of the promoter region.</p> shahid nawaz, Tahir Yaqub, Arfan Ahmad, Asif Nadeem, Nadia Mukhtar, Firnas Ata UR Rehman, Saima Yaqub, Muhammad Furqan shahid, Muzafar Ali Copyright (c) 2020 shahid nawaz, Tahir Yaqub, Arfan Ahmad, Asif Nadeem, Nadia Mukhtar, Firnas Ata UR Rehman, Saima Yaqub, Muhammad Furqan shahid, Muzafar Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/36 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 The Role of Mitochondria in Alzheimer’s Disease and its Potential Therapies https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/93 <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common form of dementia, affecting millions of people worldwide, mostly the elderly population. The gradual decline in cognitive functions, loss of memory, and sleep disorder are the most frequently reported in AD patients. Multiple studies have been carried out to find a potential therapeutic approach to prevent the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and increase the performance of cognitive abilities. Mitochondrial dysfunction leading to oxidative stress and other environmental factors, diet and lifestyle are the major risk factors. Mitochondria play an essential role and are a potential therapeutic target for treating and preventing AD progression. Various biochemical molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways are tested as directly acting on mitochondria. Numerous antioxidants are considered as a potential treatment for AD. Here, we highlighted the emerging mitochondrial base therapies and potent antioxidants that can be used in Alzheimer’s disease treatments.</p> Syed Shahab Ud Din Shah, Shah Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 Syed Shahab Ud Din Shah, Shah Hussain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/93 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 A review regarding virology, etiology, prevalence and associated risk factors of Hepatitis A. https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/74 <p>Hepatitis A is an infectious disorder of the liver prompted by Hepatovirus A virus (HAV). It is a kind of viral hepatitis. It has naked nucleocapsid virus with a single stranded, positive polarity RNA. It is devoid of virion polymerase and has a single serotype. Transmission is via fecal–oral route. In contrast to Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus, blood borne transmission of HAV is infrequent because viremia is short-term and of low titer. Mostly instances, have few or no signs, specifically in younger ones. The virus replicates in the gastrointestinal tract and then spreads to the liver during a short-term viremic period. HAV is not cytopathic for the hepatocyte. Hepatocellular injury is triggered by immune attack by the cytotoxic T cells. The time among the infection and signs, in patients that progress them, is among two and six weeks. When the signs occur, they commonly last 8 weeks and might encompass nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, pain in abdomen and fever. Around 10 to 15 percent of patients undergo a recurrence of signs at some stage in the six months after the preliminary infection. Acute liver failure may also seldom occur, with this being extra regular in elderly. No antiviral medication is available. The most suitable test to diagnose acute infection is IgM antibody. Isolation of the virus from clinical samples is not done. Vaccine consists of killed virus. Administration of immune globulin in the course of the incubation can alleviate the disease.</p> Rana Haider Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Rana Haider Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/74 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 A Review on Pharmacological and Nutritional Benefits of Mango (Mangifera indica Linn): A Remedy for Cancer, Diabetes and Gastrointestinal Infections https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/40 <p>Mango is one of the choicest fruits in the world because of its good flavour, attractive colour and fruity fragrance. It belongs to family Anacardiaceae having wide range of varieties and health benefits. It grows in tropical region and has good nutritional profile. Innumerable researches have been done around the world that demonstrated diversified nutritional and pharmacological benefits of <em>Mangifera indica</em> Linn. It has particular composition of nutrients and phytochemicals. Different parts of mango trees have different wide ranges of benefits. The flower, seeds, leaves, bark, raw as well as ripe fruits provide extensive variety of pharmacological, medicinal and many health benefits. In addition to the higher values of macronutrients as well as micronutrients, mangoes have a wide range of bioactive compounds present in different portions of plant for example, the primary active constituent present in mango is mangiferin. In this review article we reviewed a number of beneficial characteristics of mango including its antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, gastric health, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities.</p> Fizza Mubarik, Sana Noreen, Fatima Farooq, Ayesha Siddiqa, Mudassir Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Fizza Mubarik, Sana Noreen, Fatima Farooq, Ayesha Siddiqa, Mudassir Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/40 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Concise Overview https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/80 <p>Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease characterized by hematopoietic and progenitor stem cells disorder, resulting in their proliferation and accumulation in bone marrow which leads to hematopoietic failure. It is an aggressive form of cancer that typically demands quick decision-making. In case of AML, the addition of drug efflux inhibitors to the chemotherapeutic regimen may improve outcomes in patients. With the advancement in treatment strategies, patients can now receive chemotherapy, radiation therapy or additional stem cell transplants. Specific genetic mutations in leukemic cells provide the direction for treatment and determine the overall survival rate of patients. Older patients have adverse treatment consequences as age is an important factor in AML prognosis. We critically reviewed multiple existing therapies for AML. Optimization of traditional therapies remain major concern of scientists. However, little bit advancement has been made in current years. There is immense need of novel and targeted therapies to treat AML and reduce its relapse chances.</p> Mudassir Khan, Zerbab Naeem, Kainat Mumtaz, Zahra Sajid, Dilawar Khan, Faizan Ullah, Esraa Ghazy, Tahir Omer Copyright (c) 2020 Mudassir Khan, Zerbab Naeem, Kainat Mumtaz, Zahra Sajid, Dilawar Khan, Faizan Ullah, Esraa Ghazy, Tahir Omer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/80 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Insights into Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Critical Analysis on its Wide Aspects https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/30 <p>Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous, most common type of acute leukaemia that involves mutation in haematopoietic and progenitors stem cells (HPSCs) leading to uncontrolled division, self-renewal and differentiation. Though it was untreatable about a half century ago, AML is now considered to be treatable in up to 40% of adults and those who are at or under 60 years of age. For the post-induction treatment, the mutation testing and cytogenetics are still an important prognostic tool. The AML treatment remains unchanged for almost three decades, although the field is advanced with the discovery of new drugs and deep understanding of the disease biology. Still, many people are relapsing and are dying eventually from the disease. This review discusses the broader aspects of AML, reflecting some of the most important and productive areas of research on the subject and was conducted using thoroughly searching databases, including Health Research and Development Information network Plus (HERDIN Plus), google scholar and PubMed to critically analyses the recent advances, available treatments and future prospectives of AML.</p> Mudassir Khan, Misbahud Din, Zerbab Naeem, Zahra Sajid, Dilawar Khan, Muhammad Dawood Amjad, Aurang Zeb, Faheem Anwar, Mehran Akhtar, Sana Noreen Copyright (c) 2020 Mudassir Khan, Misbahud Din, Zerbab Naeem, Zahra Sajid, Dilawar Khan, Muhammad Dawood Amjad, Aurang Zeb, Faheem Anwar, Mehran Akhtar, Sana Noreen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/30 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Synthetic Biology: Approaches, Opportunities, Applications and Challenges https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/43 <p>Synthetic biology (SynBio) is a very vast field of research that produces new biological parts, appliances, and systems. It is the application of engineering principles to design and construct new bio-based biologicals, devices and systems that exhibit functions not present in nature or to redesign the existing systems to perform specific tasks. Synthetic biology varies from other disciplines including system biology, biotechnology and genetic engineering. For instance, while system biology focuses on obtaining a quantitative understanding of the naturally existing biology systems, the synthetic biology focuses on engineering, designing, and synthesis of new novel biological functions utilizing the biological information drawn from systems biology analysis. SB utilizes computer algorithms to alter genetic sequence before synthesizing them in the laboratory. Moreover, SB employed gene shuffling and refactoring tools that may alter thousands of genetic elements of an organism at once. In the present article, we aim to discuss the basic approaches of synthetic biology. Furthermore, the application of synthetic biology on biomedical science, drug discovery development, bioenergy and agriculture will also be discussed. Finally the challenges facing the researchers in the field of synthetic biology such as those technical, ethical and safety will be also highlighted.</p> Aasia Bibi, Amer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Aasia Bibi, Amer Ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/43 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500 Gloriosa superba L: A critical Review of Recent Advances https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/6 <p><em>Gloriosa superba</em> is a flowering plant belongs to Colchicaceae. It refers to full of glory', and the <em>superba</em> refers ‘superb’ referring to the outstanding red and yellow flowers. <em>G. superba</em> is a highly toxic plant, due to the presence of an alkaloid, ‘Colchicine’. Adequate ingestion of this alkaloid could cause fatalities to humans and animals. Despite its toxicity, <em>G. superba</em> considered as a medicinal plant because of its medicinal constituents and properties such as colchicine, gloriosine, pungent, bitter, acrid, heating, anthelmintic, laxative, alexiteric, and abortifacient. <em>G. superba</em> utilized for the treatment of snakebite, scorpion stings, parasitic skin disease, urological pains, colic, chronic ulcers, piles, gonorrhoea, gout, infertility, wounds, arthritis, cholera, kidney problems, itching, leprosy, cancer, sexually transmitted disease, and countless other diseases. This plant listed under the threatened category due to its indiscreet reaping from the wild as medicinal industries widely use it for its colchicine content. Field study and secondary sources were used to abridge the information on the recent advancement study of <em>G. superba</em>. In the present review, the information regarding the occurrence, botanical description, propagation, medicinal application pharmacological, ethnomedicinal, biological, and toxicological studies of <em>G. superba</em> and its recent advancement has been summarized. The detailed study of <em>G. superba</em> with current trends helps the researcher to focus on the future development needed for its conservation.</p> Saraswathi Umavathi, Kashi Gopinath, Manjula M S, Balalakshmi Chinnasamy, Arumugam Ayyakannu Copyright (c) 2020 Saraswathi Umavathi, Kashi Gopinath, Manjula M S, Balalakshmi Chinnasamy, Arumugam Ayyakannu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/6 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0500