AJ Life Sci. 2022, 5 (1)

Acute Respiratory Infections in Northern Pakistan: An Epidemiological Approach

Shams-Ud-Duha Syed1, Hifza Bibi1, Ibrar Khan1*, Sidra Tul Muntaha2, Aneela Rehman1, Azam Hayat1, Mujaddad Ur Rehman1

1Department of Microbiology, Abbottabad University of Science & Technology, 22010 Havelian, Pakistan.

2 Department of Zoology, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, 22010 Havelian, Pakistan


Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are mostly infections of the upper respiratory tract which consists upper airways. Common Acute Upper Respiratory Infections (AURIs) are common cold, acute inflammation of upper respiratory tract i.e., larynx, pharynx, mucus membranes, sinuses and middle ear. Most common bacteria are Streptococcus spp., Haemophillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. etc. While, Parainfluenza virus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, Coronavirus, Respiratory Syncytial, Adenovirus and Influenza virus are the common AURIs causing viruses. They are leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with 1.9 million deaths of children annually. In Pakistan, estimated 20-30% of the total childhood deaths >5 is caused by ARIs. The current study analyzed the epidemiology of ARIs in different facility types between Jan 2017- Dec 2019 of District Abbottabad. During the 3 years study period, 4,66,048 cases were reported with Primary health facilities having highest proportion of ARIs and prevalence was highest during 2018 (84.46%). Moreover, Highest (35%) frequency of ARIs occurred during winter with peak in December (12%). While, Tehsil Abbottabad showed high prevalence (68%) as compared to Havelian (32%). This fluctuation may be due to Risk factors that might be low humidity, indoor crowding, illiteracy and low-socioeconomic status. The current findings may help the government in making infrastructure for the health-care system development in future.

Keywords: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), Common Acute Upper Respiratory Infections (AURIs), Bacterial and Viral Etiology, Northern Pakistan




March 17, 2022

Received Revised

September 5, 2022


September 10, 2022

Available Online

September 17, 2022

Corresponding author email:


How to Cite

Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences , ISSN (online): 2663-1040, Published by Abasyn University