Department of Biology, Lahore Garrison University, Sector C, DHA Phase 6, Lahore, Pakistan.
3D bioprinting is an advanced technology that uses different biomaterial like hydrogels and bio-inks to develop artificial tissue cells and organs. There are three types of bioprinting techniques: Jetting-based bioprinting, extrusion based bioprinting, and integrated bioprinting. Biomaterials used in 3D bioprinter should have some ideal characteristics such as they should be biocompatible, printable, and provide mechanical and structural properties. There are different types of bio-inks, hydrogels, and growth factors used to overcome the crisis of organ shortage. Bioprinting technology is essential for the development of eleven organ systems as there is a need for organ replacement and tissue regeneration. It is possible to make complex tissue culture structures by using 3D bioprinting. The mixture of biomaterial and living cells used for bioprinting is called bio-inks. Hydrogels are one of the ideal components of biomaterials as it has similar characteristics as natural extracellular matrix and provides a hydrated environment for cells to divide. Generation and transportation of many tissues, including skin, heart tissues, cartilaginous constructs, and tracheal tissues is done by 3D bioprinting. It is used for research purposes, drug testing, and drug discovery. But our focus is to highlight the applications of 3D bioprinters in tissue engineering and the development of organ systems. Skin tissues have also been engineered to overcome complex skin treatment procedures and to save time and cost.
Keywords: 3D bioprinting; Bio-inks; Biomaterials; Hydrogels; Tissue Culturing