1Department of Microbiology, Abbottabad University of Science & Technology, 22010 Havelian, Pakistan
2 Department of Zoology, Abbottabad University of Science & Technology, 22010 Havelian, Pakistan
For more than 2000 years, Hippocrates' notion that has been true that "the beginning of every disease is at the gut", microbiology, neurology, and gastroenterology have all progressed with every clock's tick and noteworthy success in contemporary medicine is seen and made in their trajectory and relationships .Gut microbial flora has lately been discovered to have a have an important effect on physiology, that also includes gut brain Organization, and behaviour. Human beings live in a microbial environment, coevolving with the microbiota-a huge amount of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses that live within their bodies, particularly in the intestines. Microorganisms' roles in forming the intestinal flora might be classified as beneficial, harmful, or neutral to the host. The impact that of the gut microbiota on the immune system, brain development, and behaviour has come under the radar recently. In the previous five years, PubMed has published over 90% of the more than 4,000 articles on microbiota. The potential of the enteric microbiota and its metabolites to regulate gut permeability, mucosal immune function, intestinal motility and sensitivity, as well as the activity of the enteric nervous system, modulates gastrointestinal (GI) functions (ENS). Dysbiosis (alteration of the gut microbiota) occurs as a result of gastrointestinal disease or its treatment. Dybiosis is linked to all major gut illnesses, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and celiac disease. The purpose this review serves is to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of the gut-brain axis, as well as the gut microbiota's potential impact on depression. It will also cover current advances in specific processes of gut microbiota-brain interaction, keeping in mind the impact of psychological stress.