AJ Life Sci. 2020, 3 (2): 156-163

Prevalence of Enteric Fever in the Local Population of Rawalpindi And Islamabad Pakistan

Ijaz Ahmad 1, Hayat Khan 2, Gohar Rahman 3 , Saddam4 , Gouhar Ali5 and Rafiullah6

1 University Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
2 Department of Microbiology, University of Swabi, Pakistan.
3 Centre for Human Genetics, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan.
4 Department of Microbiology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.
5 College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University Jiangsu, China.
6 Department of MLT, Riphah International University Malakand Campus, Chakdara.


Enteric fever is the massive bacterial disease in global and caused bySalmonella typhi. It is known that humans are the only natural host andreservoir for S. typhi. That transmits enteric fever through the fecal-oralroute through the ingestion of infected water and food. The prevalencerate is high in South Central and South-East Asian countries recorded as(>100/100,000) cases per year. The aim of designing of the present study,there is no specific epidemiology report present at Rawalpindi andIslamabad. Total of 500 blood samples were collected from patientsshowing sign and symptoms of enteric fever. Sample collected fromdifferent government and private hospitals, medical laboratories, andhealth organizations from November 2013 to April 2014. Immunochromatographic technique (ICT) was used for the detection of entericfever via typhoid test kit. Out of 500 samples, 368 (73.6 %) patients werefound serologically negative while 132 (26.4%) were positive. Among thepositive samples, 42 (31.8%) were adult samples that included 25 IgM, 12IgG and 5 both IgM and IgG. Infected children of age 13-15 years were 30(22.72%) with IgM 19, IgG 8 and both IgM and IgG 3. Thirty-one (31)samples were positive among children of age group 5-12 years with 15 IgM positive, 10 IgG positive and 3 both IgM and IgG positive. Furthermore, 29 (21.96 %) were positive among children of age group 1-4 years. This high incidence of enteric fever among susceptible outdoor patients and laboratories patient show that enteric fever is a serious health problem in Rawalpindi, Islamabad. Preventive measures such as vaccination, maintaining food hygiene and awareness campaign are required in the twin cities of Rawalpindi-Islamabad for the eradication of enteric fever.

Keywords: Enteric Fever; Salmonella Paratyphi; Salmonella Typhi; Pakistan;




September 4, 2020

Received Revised

December 10, 2020


December 25, 2020

Available Online

December 31, 2020

Corresponding author email:


How to Cite

Ahmad I, Khan H, Rehman G, Saddam, Ali G, Rafiullah. Prevalence of Enteric Fever in the Local Population of Rawalpindi And Islamabad Pakistan. Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences 2020; 3(2): 156-163.

Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences , ISSN (online): 2663-1040, Published by Abasyn University