1Institute of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Pakistan
Expression of genes within the microbial cells are regulated by the change in cellular density of microbes in their ecosystems, this mechanism is termed as microbial Quorum sensing. Almost every prokaryote synthesizes small molecules called auto-inducers, responsible for their Quorum sensing. Auto-inducers formation in Gram-negative bacteria is provoked by a chemical know as Sadenosylmethionine (SAM). Various physiological mechanisms of microbial cell systems are provoked by auto-inducer and microbial cell receptors interaction, a kind of Quorum sensing. Quorum sensing mechanism of fungi was discovered eleven years ago when farnesol panel filamentation was detected in the pathogenic metamorphic yeast called Candida albicans. In the previous era, it was discovered that farnesol plays a key role in the regulation of the physiology of C. albicans acts like a signaling chemical, and encourages destructive effects on host cells along with other microorganisms. Along with farnesol, another compound called aromatic tyrosol alcohol was also pledged to be a C. albican Quorum Sensing regulatory factor for growth, biofilm synthesis, and development of morphology. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phenyl ethanol and tryptophol are the two main aromatic alcohols that control QSMs regulation for morphogenesis in nitrogen deficiency circumstances. Moreover, cell densitydependent recitals that appear like Quorum Sensing have been labeled in various mycocal species. However, the study of the Quorum Sensing mechanism of fungi is yet in its commencement, its recognition has altered our sentiments about mycocal kingdom and might eventually cause the development of new fungicidal therapeutics.
Keywords: Quorum Sensing, Farnesol, Aromatic Alcohol, Pathogenic Fungi, Tyrosol, Biofilm, Prokaryotes