AJ Life Sci. 2023, 6 (1)

Antibiotics classification, uses, resistance and their alternates

Muhammad Arshad Durrani1 , Faisal Ayub1 , Imran Altaf1 , Hafiz Samiullah2

1Institute of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Pakistan

2Department of Epidemiology University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Pakistan


Antibiotics discovery is deliberated one of the most significant achievements of science in 20th century. It modernized both veterinary and human medicine to treat infectious diseases. All the drugs used to combat bacterial infection in both human and animals are termed as antibiotics. Antibiotics can be obtained from natural sources like plants & prokaryotes, and can be synthesized in vitro. Antibiotics are classified into bacteriostatic (cure infection by inhibiting bacterial growth) and bactericidal (cure infection by killing prokaryotes) on the basis of their mechanism of action. Further classification of antibiotics based on their site of action within prokaryotic cells. Use of antibiotics to treat infections in human and animals has become very common in previous century. Prophylactic use of antibiotics in humans, animals, and antibiotic persistence in environment has provoked antibiotic resistant in pathogenic bacteria. Due to increase in bacterial resistance against antibiotics, scientists developed alternatives of antibiotics to combat with infectious diseases. Probiotics, antimicrobial proteins, bacteriophages and plant-derived compounds are promising substitute of antibiotics to prevent and cure infectious diseases. Antibiotic persistence in environment and prophylactic use of antibiotics in humans and animals are the major factors that develop remittance against antibiotics in pathogenic bacteria. The healthy food is the best alternate to antibiotics and other medicines. This review articles focuses on history of antibiotics discovery, their uses to treat infectious medicine, antibiotic classification, antibiotic resistant and alternatives of antibiotics.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Antibiotics Classification; Infectious diseases; Antibiotic resistance; Alternatives to antibiotics.




June 24, 2023

Received Revised

August 28, 2023


August 30, 2023

Available Online

September 1, 2023

Corresponding author email:

imran.altaf@uvas.edu. pk

How to Cite

Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences , ISSN (online): 2663-1040, Published by Abasyn University