Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls <p>The Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences (AJLS) (eISSN 2663-1040) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal of free publication, published under Abasyn University, Pakistan. AJLS is a multidisciplinary journal, which publishes high quality, original and the most important scientific advances in life sciences. The emphasis is on publishing quality novel research papers, full-length review, mini-reviews and short communications in specific areas of Life Sciences.</p> <p>AJLS covers various disciplines of life sciences, such as:</p> <ul> <li>Biotechnology</li> <li>Microbiology</li> <li>Molecular Biology</li> <li>Bioinformatics</li> <li>Pharmaceutical</li> <li>Biomedical Sciences</li> <li>Nanobiology</li> <li>Biochemistry</li> <li>Botany</li> <li>Zoology</li> <li>Environmental Sciences</li> <li>Genetics</li> <li>Agriculture</li> </ul> Abasyn University en-US Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences 2616-9754 <p>The content of AJLS is licensed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).</p> Performance of Static Spinosad Traps against Bactrocera Spp. at Different Heights in Guava Orchard http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/335 <p><em>Bactrocera</em> <em>zonata </em>and <em>Bactrocera dorsalis</em> species of fruit fly are considered to major insect pests of vegetables and fruit orchards in the throughout world. Fruit flies may be controlled by several methods (chemical, mechanical, cultural, and biological). The attractive methods have been shown to be more effective and critical for reducing insect pest infestations and monitoring insect numbers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pheromone traps (Static Spinosad + Methyl eugenol) on fruit flies (<em>B. zonata and B. dorsalis</em>) at different heights of 0, 1, 2, and 3 meter on the guava orchard. The population of flies were counted weekly basis. The results regarded that the maximum number of <em>B. zonata</em> was recorded 460.2 flies on 22<sup>nd</sup> October, 2020 at 2-meter height and the minimum number of 48.6 flies was noted at 0-meter (ground level) on 4<sup>th</sup> February, 2021. Moreover, the highest <em>B. dorsalis</em> 103.0 flies were recorded at 2-meter height on 29<sup>th</sup> October, 2020 and the lowest 7.0 flies were observed on 4<sup>th</sup> February, 2021 at height of 0-meter (ground level). Similarly, the overall higher population of <em>B. zonata</em> and <em>B. dorsalis</em> was noted at 2-meter height (326.9 and 89.01 flies) and lower was noted at ground (142.8 and 9.11 flies). The population of <em>B. zonata</em> and <em>B. dorsalis</em> correlated positively (r= 0.2943** and r= 0.0537**) with temperature and negatively correlated (r= -0.0223<sup>NS</sup> and r= -0.0023<sup>NS</sup>) with relative humidity. It is concluded that the pheromone traps (Spinosad+Methyl eugenol) installed at a height of 2-meter showed the highest catches number of fruit flies (<em>B. zonata</em> and <em>B. dorsalis</em>) in guava orchards and further studies are recommended to control fruit flies (male) in orchards and vegetables at different heights of traps.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jawad Hyder Soomro Bhai Khan Solangi Din Muhammad Soomro Ariz Muhammad Pirzado Faiza Abbasi Noman Khalid Randhawa Shafee Muhammad Syed Muzafar Ali Shah Rashdi Copyright (c) 2024 Jawad Hyder Soomro, Bhai Khan Solangi, Din Muhammad Soomro, Ariz Muhammad Pirzado, Faiza Abbasi, Noman Khalid Randhawa, Shafee Muhammad, Syed Muzafar Ali Shah Rashdi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 7 1 32 39 Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in bovine milk, meat and liver samples accessible in Lahore, Pakistan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/328 <p>Lumpy skin disease (LSD), a commercially significant virus that affects cattle, has recently spread to South and East Asia. The first LSD outbreak in Pakistan was reported in Jamshoro district in August 2019, with subsequent spread to other regions including Lahore. However, limited information exists on the origin and molecular epidemiology of the responsible LSDV strain. To specifically identify LSDV, published primers were utilized for PCR amplification, followed by gel electrophoresis analysis. The results indicate the absence of LSDV in the tested meat, liver, and milk samples, suggesting that they are free from contamination. This study highlights the importance of on-going monitoring during LSD outbreaks and demonstrates that market vendors in Lahore adhere to food safety regulations, ensuring the provision of safe food to consumers. While the molecular characteristics and origin of the LSDV strain responsible for the initial outbreaks remain unknown, these findings provide reassurance regarding the safety of meat, liver, and milk products in the Lahore market that shows the absence of LSDV among the selected random samples.</p> Iqra Saddique Zubair Yousaf Copyright (c) 2024 Iqra Saddique, Zubair Yousaf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 7 1 15 21 Frequency of Different Microorganisms Isolated From the Diabetic Foot Ulcers and their Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/336 <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic illness and one of the devastating complications of diabetes is diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are thought to affect 10 to 25% of diabetic people throughout the course of their lifetime. So the main prospective of this sudy to detect the frequency of different microorganisms isolated from DFU and also their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. On the basis of purposive sampling technique the medical record of 356 patients was collected who have Diabetic foot ulcer and visited the Sakina Begum Institute of Diabetes and Endocrine Research Lahore (SIDER) from May 2021 to May 2022. Only those samples were included in this study whose bacterial growth was identified through microbiological media and further antimicrobial sensitivity was confirmed by disc diffusion method. About 54.5% of diabetic foot ulcer patients were tested positive for infections by microbes; among which 62% samples had single organism growth and 37% had polymicrobial growth. 34% of the isolated microbes were gram positive while 66% were gram negative. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolated organism and the resistant pattern was strong against cefotaxime, cefuroxime and ampicillin but vancomycin showed the 58% sensitivity for gram positive bacteria. This study evaluated the microbiology of DFUs and identified the pattern of bacterial isolates' resistance to antibacterial agents. Most of the isolates showed resistance to common antibiotics so appropriate antibiotic administration is necessary to reduce the resistance pattern and needs to be timely treated to avoid from further infection.</p> Talha Mannan Copyright (c) 2024 Talha Mannan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 7 1 22 31 Extraction and characterization of lutein from plant sources http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/334 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Lutein is yellow color hydroxyl-carotenoid compound, as well as a fat soluble antioxidant which is helpful in brain and eye development.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The research was planned for extraction and characterization of lutein from various plant sources. Extracted lutein was also utilized in food products. Specific objective of research was purification, quantification and characterization of lutein.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Lutein was extracted from two different sources (marigold and spinach), through extraction process, saponification and HPLC method. Analysis of lutein color was performed through colorimeter by using L* a* b* parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Extracted lutein yield from spinach and marigold was 0.7±0.04% and 1.67±0.02% and intensity of color shows L* (25.01±2.40 and 42.79±0.88), a* (0.33±0.22 and 24.43±0.50) and b* (1.87±0.96 and 36.27±0.96) from spinach and marigold. Cupcakes were prepared by using various concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%) of extracted lutein. After product preparation the physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of cakes were carried out. The results indicated that 1% concentration of lutein was observed to be suitable for the development of food product as well as organoleptic results also indicated that 1% concentration of lutein was acceptable by the consumer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is concluded that the extracted lutein was used in the development of cupcake as a natural color because of natural color and may help to prevent the oxidation, age-related molecular degeneration (AMD) and eye disease.</p> <p><strong>Highlight: </strong>Lutein rich food may use for many diseased like AMD, heart and cancer diseases. Extracted lutein also may use as a natural color in food items (candies and cupcake).</p> khizar hayat shanza arbab zarnela arbab Copyright (c) 2024 khizar hayat, shanza arbab; zarnela arbab https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 7 1 40 53 GIS Based Evaluation of Population Density and Diversity of Birds of Prey of District Muzaffargarh, Punjab Pakistan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/296 <p>Diversity and evaluation of populations of raptors were accomplished in District Muzaffargarh (South Punjab, Pakistan) by using belt transect (5 × 0.1Km) method. Incurrent study we reported total 447 raptors, that related to 10 species present in 2 families (Accipitridae and Pandionidae) with a density of 34.38 birds/Km<sup>2</sup>. Values of dominance (0.185), Simpson 0.818, Shannon Wiener 2.00, and evenness (0.567) were measured, recommended in even distribution of the species Black Kite (<em>Milvus migrans</em>; relative abundance, RA 0.082) was most plentiful species, flowed by Shikra (<em>Accipiter badius</em>; RA 0.038), Marsh Harrier (<em>Circus aeruginosus</em>; RA 0.0336), Black Shoulder Kite (<em>Elanus caeruleus</em>; RA 0.0537), Honey Buzzard (<em>Pernis ptilorhynchus</em>; RA 0.0201), and Brahminy’s Kite (<em>Haliastur indus</em>; RA 0.0157). Another five species (Steppe Eagle, <em>Aquila nipalensis</em>; Common Buzzard, <em>Buteo</em>; Long Legged Buzzard, <em>Buteo rufinus</em>; White Eyed Buzzard, <em>Butastur teesa</em>; and Osprey, <em>Pandion haliaetus</em>) were uncommon (RA 0.0022).</p> Muhammad Khalil Nazakat Ali Ali Umar Azhar Iqbal Muhammad Ahmad Muhammad Abdullah Samina shakoor Muhammad Wajid Muhammad Saleem Khan Arshad Javid Hayat Ullah Maliha Sarfraz Majid Alhomrani Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Khalil, Nazakat Ali, Ali Umar, Azhar Iqbal, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah, Samina shakoor, Muhammad Wajid, Muhammad Saleem Khan, Arshad Javid, Hayat Ullah, Maliha Sarfraz, Majid Alhomrani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-03 2024-01-03 7 1 1 14