Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls <p>The Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences (AJLS) (eISSN 2663-1040) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal of free publication, published under Abasyn University, Pakistan. AJLS is a multidisciplinary journal, which publishes high quality, original and the most important scientific advances in life sciences. The emphasis is on publishing quality novel research papers, full-length review, mini-reviews and short communications in specific areas of Life Sciences.</p> <p>AJLS covers various disciplines of life sciences, such as:</p> <ul> <li>Biotechnology</li> <li>Microbiology</li> <li>Molecular Biology</li> <li>Bioinformatics</li> <li>Pharmaceutical</li> <li>Biomedical Sciences</li> <li>Nanobiology</li> <li>Biochemistry</li> <li>Botany</li> <li>Zoology</li> <li>Environmental Sciences</li> <li>Genetics</li> <li>Agriculture</li> </ul> Abasyn University en-US Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences 2616-9754 <p>The content of AJLS is licensed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).</p> Isolation and Purification of Thrombolytic Enzyme Extracted from Earthworm Punjab, Pakistan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/59 <p>The Cardiovascular disease due to thrombus (clot) formation is the major factor of death throughout the world. Earthworms being the eco engineers has thrombolytic enzyme that can be used for thrombolysis. The thrombolytic enzyme was isolated and purified from supernatant of earthworm Apporectodea longa by column chromatography. Six Strain BKT 11, BKT 15, BKT 17, BKT 26, BKT 27 and BKT 28 shows the thrombolytic activity 791.64 U/mg, 1362.39 U/mg, 1205.4 U/mg, 710.63 U/mg, 529.66 U/mg and 625.00 U/mg respectively. Thrombolytic activity was confirmed by blood clot lysis method. Different concentrations 50 μl,100 μl, 150 μl, 200 μl and 250 μl of extracted enzyme were applied on 25mg of wet blood clot along with control where distill water used. These fractions of extracted enzymes represent the dissolution of clot (thrombolysis). The molecular weight 32 KDa was determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results show that extracted elute have potential of fibrinolytic activity in this specie of earthworm and it can serve as a suitable therapeutic agent.</p> Bakhtawer nasrullah Muhammad Faheem Malik Sumera Afsheen Copyright (c) 2021 Bakhtawer nasrullah; Muhammad Faheem Malik https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 127 135 Trichogramma chilonis, an effective egg parasitoid for control of white stem borer Scirpophaga innotata (Walker), (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in rice http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/135 <p>Rice an important staple food crop of the world, which is attacked by the various insect pests, among them the stem borers are the most destructive pests, distributed in all rice growing areas of the world and cause the severe losses. This research investigated the efficacy of the parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) to control the white stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata) in rice. In this respect the field studies were conducted in lower Sindh, Pakistan for the year, Kharif - 2017 and 2018. Trichogramma egg parasitoid over 230 species are reported to have been remained in biological control of insect pests of over 200 insect species belonging to 70 different families, mainly the order Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthroptera and Thysnoptera, in order to manage the white stem borer of rice the Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) was used as a bio-control agent. The Studies revealed that T. chilonis proved an effective biocontrol strategy against white stem borer of rice. The result of this study could be useful in an integrated pest management program for the management of white stem borer of rice the Trichogramma chilonis. </p> Muhammad Yousif Rahimoon Abdul Ghani lanjar Aslam Bukero Babar Hussain Chang Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano Mark Richard McNeill Ammara Rajput Zainab Lanjar Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Yousif Rahimoon; Abdul Ghani lanjar, Aslam Bukero, Babar Hussain Chang, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano, Mark Richard McNeill, Ammara Rajput, Zainab Lanjar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 51 60 Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Hospital Environment http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/162 <p>Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of disease and death particularly in cystic fibrosis patients and also considered resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, it is very difficult to remove the Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the hospital environment by using simple techniques. In the contemporary study, biofilm mediated mechanism of various antimicrobial responses were analyzed. For this purpose, different Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates were collected from Pakistan medical institute Islamabad (PIMS) hospital and were investigated for pellicle formation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were studied for different groups of antibiotics including imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime, amikacin, tobramycin, gentamicin, piperacillin, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. The goal was to check antimicrobial susceptibility of pseudomonas aeruginosa which shows resistant to tobramycin, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, cefotaxime, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefoperazone. Additionally, in this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were also investigated for pellicle formation. In conclusion, this research work wills highlights the useful mechanism of antibiotics resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in clinical practice.</p> Munzer Ullah Hayat Ullah Ullah Khaliq Noor Maliha Sarfraz Misbah Ullah Khan Uzma Bibi Ghulam Nabi Maheen Kanwal Kainat Ramzan Ahmed M. Metwaly Copyright (c) 2021 Maliha Sarfraz, Dr. Hayat Ullah Ullah, Dr. Munzer Ullah, Khaliq Noor, Dr. Shad Ali, Dr. Misbah Ullah Khan, Maheen Kanwal, Kainat Ramzan, Dr. Ahmed M. Metwaly https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 40 50 L-Carnitine Improves Cytoprotection during Cryopreservation: A case study on Nili-Ravi Buffalo Sperm http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/123 <p>The current study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidative effect of L-Carnitine at post thawing following cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi buffalo sperm. For the purpose, semen from three buffalo bulls were collected for 3 weeks using artificial vagina (N=18; replicates). The qualified ejaculates were diluted employing tris-citric acid extender i.e., control did not receive any L-Carnitine and experimental groups having 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ng/mL of L-carnitine at 37°C with approximately 50 × 106 sperm/mL. The semen wascooled at 4°C and then equilibrated (4 hours), filled in straws (0.5 mL) at4°C, placed on LN2 vapours for 10 min and kept into an LN2 container. Thethawed semen was evaluated for post-thaw quality. The integrity of thesperm plasma membrane and motility (P˂0.05) was highest in theextenders having 1.0 ng/mL of L-carnitine as compared to the control(received no L-Carnitine). However, sperm chromatin integrity and viability(live sperm with intact acrosome) remained similar. It was concluded thatsupplementing 1.0 ng/mL L-Carnitine of extender can improve the post-thaw quality of cryopreserved sperm. Based on the results of the currentexperiments it is recommended to include L-carnitine extender to improvepost-thaw quality of buffalo sperm in terms of its motility and integrity ofits plasma membrane.</p> Saima Qadeer Rabea Ejaz Asma Ul Husna Asima Azam Syeda Laila Rubab Ghulam Nabi Sana Ullah Shamim Akhter Copyright (c) 2021 Saima Qadeer, Rabea Ejaz, Asma Ul Husna, Asima Azam, Syeda Laila Rubab, Ghulam Nabi, Sana Ullah, Shamim Akhter https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 80 85 Association between Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism with type 2 Diabetes mellitus http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/157 <p>Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial illness triggered by a complicated interplay of various genetic variants with various environmental variables. The quantity of replicated common genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased rapidly with the recent genome-wide association (GWA) research. Major health issue in the public are type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common throughout the world. Diabetes mellitus incidence is growing and is anticipated to affect 300 million individuals by 2025. Diabetes has been suggested to alter patterns of cytokine expression as an immune-dependent illness. Insulin resistance (IR) is a disease that results in less than anticipated biological impact of a specified insulin concentration. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion decreased are both defined pathophysiology of T2DM. One of the most alarming health issues of the 21st century is the spread of diabetes around the globe. Our goal in this study was to identify the role of IL-10 polymorphism in T2DM patients. The average age of 60 median patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (31 males and 29 females) ±SD (45.91667 ±16.08799), fasting blood sugar (FBS) is ±SD (184.25 ±57.76387), hypertension (35 positive/25 negative) and 60 non-diabetic controls (32 males and 28 females) is ± SD (47.31667 ±15.13722). The group (T2DM patients and their control) had not a substantial distinction (P=0.33) and in each group (CC, TT, CT) there was a comparison between IL-10 gene polymorphism. T2DM patients and healthy individuals are not associated with the polymorphism of the gene IL-10 (SNP rs 3021097 (C/T).</p> Hafiz Umair Hassan Rana Haider Ali Hafiz Muhammad Usman Siddiq Fahad Ahmed Hafiz Hanan Taj Muhammad Farhan Rashid Sami Ullah Copyright (c) 2021 Rana Haider Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 28 39 Isolation and Identification of the Potential Novel L-asparaginase producing Bacillus Strains from Soil http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/185 <p>L-Asparaginase is a well know enzyme for its antineoplastic potential and is widely used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphosarcoma. The present work describes the isolation and characterization of novel L-asparaginase producing Bacillus strains from soil. Soil samples were collected from three different locations such as fruit garden, dairy farm and agricultural land in Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The isolates were screened to produce L-asparaginase in growth medium supplemented with 1% L-asparagine using a phenol red indicator. Among 30 bacterial isolates, only two strains initially coded as A5 and FG7 showed L-asparaginase activity. Based on biochemical and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, the isolate A5 and FG7 were identified as <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens </em>and <em>Bacillus proteolyticus </em>respectively. Different factors like pH and time were optimized for maximum L-asparaginase activity. <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</em> showed maximum asparaginase activity at pH 7 after 24 hours incubation at 30<sup>o</sup>C, while <em>Bacillus proteolyticus </em>showed optimum activity at pH 7 after 48 hours of incubation at 30<sup>o</sup>C. The present study first time reported the production of L-asparginase enzyme from <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens </em>and <em>Bacillus proteolyticus.</em></p> Naushaba Nazli Rukhsar Masood Muhmmad Salman Rukhsar Masood Bilal Nasir Farah shireen Asif Mehmood Sudhair Abbas Bangash Farrukh Hussain Shabir Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Naushaba Nazli, Rukhsar Masood, Rukhsar Masood, Muhmmad Salman, Bilal Nasir, Farah shireen, Asif Mehmood, Abbas, Shabir Ahmad, Dr. Farrukh Hussain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 11 19 Assessment of Detection and Treatment Response of Hepatitis C viral Infection in District Mardan Pakistan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/142 <p>Hepatitis C virus is known to be major public health issue around the globe. The aim was to investigate the treatment and detection of HCV infection in general population of District Mardan. Presently no standard treatment is available for the cure of Hepatitis C viral infection, attributed possibly to the hyper variations in HCV genome, expressing several distinct HCV genotypes. For a period of 5 months (June 2016 - November 2016), 270 suspected individuals visited the main hospital of Mardan Medical complex (MMC), were interviewed. Among them 100 individuals were diagnosed by ELISA and PCR for HCV detection at the diagnostic laboratory of MMC. A total of 170 HCV patients were treated at the MMC, with oral medicine or interferon vaccines and the response were monitored by PCR after treatments. Our result showed that high sensitivity for genome-based PCR detection of HCV in comparison to viral coat protein detection by ELISA. The assessment of treatment strategies for HCV showed high response for presently available medicines i.e., Sovaldi, Sofiget, Sofohil, Ocvir and sofosbuvir in comparison to interferon and pig interferon. The accurate and early diagnosis of the HCV infection is crucial for effective treatment strategies. Thereby PCR detection should be the proffered method for specific and accurate detection of HCV infection. The standard medicine available presently proved better treatment method for HCV infection in comparison to interferon vaccination.</p> Atif Kamil Aurang Zeb Farooq Hussain Muhsin Jamal Azmat Ali Muhammad Shah Ayaz Ahmad Jawad Khan Faheem Anwar Nabila Copyright (c) 2021 Atif Kamil, Aurang Zeb, Farooq Hussain, Muhsin Jamal, Azmat Ali, Muhammad Shah, Ayaz Ahmad, Jawad Khan, Faheem Anwar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 73 79 Unveiling the genetic divergence and phenotypic association in elite Pakistani wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/88 <p>The present study was designed to assess genetic divergence between commercial bread wheat genotypes based on yield and its related traits and to carry out phenotypic correlation. Twenty bread hexaploid wheat varieties were assessed for mean performance, correlation analysis and genetic distance. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications during growing season, 2018-2019 at Wheat and Barley Research Institute, Tandojam. The mean squares depicted significant differences (P&lt;0.01) for all the investigated traits among the tested genotypes, proving that used genetic resources possess a great potential for further breeding experiments. Regarding mean performance, the genotypes Sassui and TD-1 displayed desirable performance for a variety of traits, unveiling their importance in wheat breeding programs. The results also showed that tillers plant-1, grains spike-1 and seed index developed significantly positive (P&lt;0.05) interrelationship with grain yield plant-1. This demonstrates that genotypes possessing higher extent of these traits may be chosen in selection for developing high yielding bread wheat genotypes. The larger genetic distance was witnessed between Johar-78 and TD-1, followed by SKD-1 and TJ-83, SKD-1 and Mehran-89, SKD-1 and Johar-78, TD-1 and Khirman, TJ-83 and Imdad-05, Mehran-89 and TD-1 and Johar-78 and TJ-83. These paired showed wide genetic distances, which may also be preferred in wheat hybridization program.</p> Naila Gandahi Ghulam Hussain Jatoi Abdul Wahid Baloch Asadullah Mari Liaquat Ali Bhutto Mir Yar Muhammad Khan Talpur Nasreen Fatima Tanweer Fatah Abro Rong Shu Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 Abdul Wahid Baloch https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 119 126 Stable Vesicle Production from Bacterial Total Lipid Extracts http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/170 <p>Liposomes are the small vesicles, made up of lipids. Based on their structure, they can be called as simplified cell structure. Structure of liposomes depends on the pH of preparation buffer, method of preparation and the environmental condition in which they are prepared. Liposomes have significance in the field of medicines for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. They mainly work as vehicle for drug delivery. The objective of this study was to make stable liposomes from two types of bacterial samples i.e. a gram-positive and a gram-negative strain. <em>E. coli </em>and <em>Bacillus sp. </em>were selected as representative of gram negative and gram positive bacteria, respectively. Extraction of lipids was performed by various methods, out of which modified Bligh and Dyer method gave most efficient results. Liposomes were prepared by extrusion and their stability and efficiency was tested by fluorescence spectrophotometer using OxanolVI. Our results showed that liposomes formed by lipids extracted from <em>E. coli </em>were more stable than the liposomes formed by lipids extracted from <em>Bacillus sp.</em></p> Sana Fatima Naila Malkani Muhammad Muzammal Muzammil Ahmad Khan Asghar Ali Khan Muhammad Usama Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Muzammal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 1 10 Vegetation conditions in various plant communities and their performance in district Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/138 <p>Six villages were registered for the experimental purpose/plantation where more than 25,000 plants were planted to develop range forest. These plants were developed at Marvi nursery PARC-Arid Zone Research Institute, Umerkot and some were purchased from private nursery situated at Mirpurkhas. Results revealed that maximum plants mortality rate was found at village Ratnore and lowest mortality of plants was observed at Mithrio Charan. Plants damaged due to unknown reason (natural), termite attack and diseases. In various locations most of plants were affected by termites than others biotic and abiotic factors. The most influenced plant was Prosopis cinerera. Maximum plants survived numbers of grafted ber was found at village Ratnore, the biomass production of green and dry grasses was taken after harvesting. A highest green grass weight 21812.58 kg and dry 3439.83 kg were observed from elephant grass stock and lowest green weight 5001.92 kg from Gatten grass and dry weight 477.57 kg per acre were recorded from Rhode grass 1 (Sabri). Gatten grass and Rhode grass 1 (Sabri) were found lower weight. All these seven grasses showed excellent performance except Elephant grass and Gatten grass. These two grasses needed more water as compared to remaining five species. These grasses when fed by goats their milk production was increased and goats like to feed these grasses. The pictures of these grasses showed their appearance and health irrigated by underground brackish water with more than 2200 ppm.</p> Muhammad Waseem Kalroo Attaullah Khan Pathan Sarfaraz Ahmed Muhammad Siddique Depar Imran Ali Rajput Behari Lal Meghwar Arsalan Memon Abdul Mubeen Lodhi Arif Ali Muhammad Bello Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 Imran Ali Rajput, Muhammad Waeem Kalroo, Attaullah Khan Pathan, Muhammad Siddique Depar, Behari Lal Meghwar, Abdul Mubeen Lodhi, Arsalan Memon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 136 144 Transferring of Lactobacillus antibiotic resistant genes to Salmonella http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/167 <p>Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide issue and becoming more problematic due to extensive misuse of antibiotics. The present study was aimed to analyze role of Lactobacillus in transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (tetM, ermB, sul2) to Salmonella and verification of these genes by real time polymerase chain reaction. A total of thirty fecal samples (15 were indigenous and 15 were broilers) were collected and analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that there was high expression of antibiotic resistance genes in Lactobacillus in case of broiler chicken than indigenous ones indicating Lactobacillus as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes but found to be non-significant in transferring these genes to Salmonella. In conclusion, the excessive use of animal growth promoters in poultry assists in acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes by normal micro-biota.</p> Muhammad Jawad Bashir Sajjad ur Rahman Muhammad Ashraf Rizwan Aslam Sultan Ali Sultan Ali Abdul Jabbar Copyright (c) 2021 MUHAMMAD JAWAD BASHIR https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 145 151 Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Foliar Zinc Spraying on the Yield, Yield Components, and Seed Recovery of Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/130 <p>Domestic production of berseem seed is very low; therefore, we import many seeds. Seeds of berseem can be produced in the country for which research on seed production is preferred, as most research works on berseem conducted on forage production only. Thus, an experiment comprising four levels of nitrogen (0. 15, 30, and 45 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and four levels of foliar zinc (0, 400, 600, and 800 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) was designed with the purpose to find out appropriate levels of nitrogen and foliar zinc to get maximum seed yield of berseem. The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar during winter 2014-2015 by using a randomized complete block design replicated three times. The results indicated that both nitrogen and foliar zinc application significantly (P˂0.05) influenced fresh (13219.41 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and dry fodder yield (5538 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), head m<sup>-2</sup> (1963), number of seeds head<sup>-1</sup> (50), biological yield (8535.4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), thousand seed weight (2.6 g), seed yield (261 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), seed recovery (68%). A significant effect was recorded only by different nitrogen levels on the number of flower head<sup>-1</sup> (78) and harvest index (3.19%), whereas zinc significantly influenced plant height (80 cm). Both nitrogen and foliar zinc application increase fresh and dry fodder yield, plant height, head m<sup>-2</sup>, seed head<sup>-1</sup>, thousand seed weight, seed yield, and seed recovery. It was concluded that the application of nitrogen (45 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and zinc (600 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) in foliar spraying produces the maximum yield of the berseem crop.</p> Muhammad Asim Quaid Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 Quaid Hussain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 Evaluation of nutritional amendments and fungicides against brown leaf spot of rice http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/120 <p>Helminthosporium oryzae, the causal organism of bacterial leaf spot (BLS) has brought a tremendous loss of rice crop in the field. Rice seedlings of four commercial varieties (Nayab basmati, Kiran 434, Super basmati, and Pak 386) were screened against BLS in the field by using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The present experiment was encompassed the evaluation of fermented farmyard manure, leaf manure, Boron, and NPK solution against BLS. The effect of different fungicides (Score, Flumax, Melodyduo, and Polyram) was also checked on the mycelial growth of Helminthosporium oryzae in-vitro and in-vivo. The results showed that Pak 386 was highly resistant with 17.22% disease severity and Super Basmati was found moderately resistant with 22.31% disease severity; variety Kisan 434 was found moderately susceptible (24.15%) and Nayab Basmati (24.82%) was susceptible. Among all NPK solutions showed the best results in growth enhancement, plant vigor as well as reduction in disease severity followed by FFYM, boron and leaf manure. Under in-vitro conditions, all the fungicides performed best at 150 ppm in terms of colony growth reduction. The maximum growth inhibition was recorded in Score followed by Flumax, Melodyduo, and Polyram. Score gave a significant reduction in BLS disease severity and maximized the agronomic attributes. The fungicides performed best at 150 ppm in terms of colony growth reduction. The maximum growth inhibition was recorded in Score followed by Flumax, Melodyduo, and Polyram. Score gave a significant reduction in BLS disease severity and maximized the agronomic attributes.</p> Fiza Mohsin Safdar Ali Muhammad Usman Ghani Waqas Ashraf Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan Rizwan Mahmood Muhammad Muntazir Mehdi Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Fiza Mohsin, Safdar Ali, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan, Waqas Ashraf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 86 94 A Thermal stable and proteinase-K resistant insecticidal toxins produced by Photorhabdus luminescens http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/186 <p>Photorhabdus is lives in a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis. Bacteria of the Photorhabdus can survive independently and cause toxicity in a larger variety of insects. In the present study, insecticidal activity of non-portentous heat-stable metabolites of Photorhabdus luminescens was evaluated against Galleria mellonella. For this purpose, the culture extract of P. luminescens was injected into the G. mellonella larvae, which killed almost 90% of larvae within 48 h. The extract showed 100% insecticidal activity after heat treatment of 70°C for 30 min and even 60% and 40% activity lasted at 80°C and 90°C respectively. The extract also showed a high degree of thermal stability and was 100% actives after 60 min at 70°C. In addition, insecticidal activity was preserved up to 100% after all proteinase-K treatments (0 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL). The results revealed that the extracts were non-portentous and showed high thermal resistance and stability.</p> Ihsan Ullah Khalid M.S. Al-ghamdi Copyright (c) 2021 Ihsan Ullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 161 167 Diagnostic approaches and prevalence of Rifampicin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in District Mardan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/152 <p>The disease tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) is most common infectious disease in developing countries. The disease is fatal if not treated during the early stages of infection, thereby early and precise detection is a decisive step in curing the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of tuberculosis in patients reporting to Mardan Medical Complex (MMC), located in the district Mardan, KPK, Pakistan. The sputum of patients was analysed by Ziehl-Nilsen (ZN) staining technique followed by light microscopy called Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB) staining. The sputum samples were collected from the patients and analysed by special PCR method called GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, for genomic detection and resistance assay for rifampicin antibiotic were used, are the commonly used medicine for the treatment of MTB infection. Total 121 patients reported to MMC, represented 74 % patients from Mardan, 12% from Nowshera and 14% from Swabi. These patients were screened for the aim to evaluate the techniques for the detection of MTB. The light microscopy method confirmed 66 (55%) of the patients positive for MTB, whereas the same samples reported 78 (68%) patients positive for MTB through GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, The Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) found for light microscopy were 99% and 78.1% respectively. The most used drug rifampicin was found ineffective in 9 patients (7%). Additionally, 83% of the patients when interviewed had a folk history of tuberculosis.</p> Atif Kamil Haseeb Ullah Farooq Hussain Muhsin Jamal Azmat Ali Muhammad Shah Ayaz Ahmad Jawad Khan Faheem Anwar Nabila Copyright (c) 2021 Atif Kamil, Haseeb Ullah, Farooq Hussain, Muhsin Jamal, Azmat Ali, Muhammad Shah, Ayaz Ahmad, Jawad Khan, Faheem Anwar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 65 72 Identification of Vancomycin Resistance Determinants in Twin Cities of Rawalpindi/Islamabad http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/94 <p>Vancomycin resistant Enterococci have emerged rapidly in the recent years leading to treatment failure. The aim of this work was to identify vancomycin resistance determinants; vanA and vanB genes in Enterococci. The blood, urine and throat samples were collected from 150 patients from local hospitals of twin cities of Rawalpindi/Islamabad. Forty-nine phenotypically confirmed isolates were further confirmed by PCR amplification for vancomycin determinants (genes for vanA and vanB) for vancomycin resistant Enterococci. Dependence and frequency distribution of VRE and VSE bacteraemia with respect to age, gender and source was also studied. Phenotypically resistant strains were positive for vanA while negative for vanB. vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) could be isolated more from urine samples as compared to blood whereas vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) was found more prevalent in the blood samples (p value= 0.000). VRE was more frequently isolated from patients aged 50 or above whereas VSE prevalence was same in both age groups (p value=0.002). Gender was not found to have any significant impact on VRE or VSE bacteraemia. This study reports vanA gene cluster responsible for resistance in Pakistani population and frequently isolation of VRE from blood samples.</p> Sidra Rahmat Ullah Saadia Andleeb Taskeen Raza Khalid Mehmood Copyright (c) 2021 Sidra Rahmat Ullah , Saadia Andleeb, Taskeen Raza, Khalid Mehmood https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 112 118 Effects of Staphylococcus aureus hemolysin toxins on blood cells and association with skin and soft tissue infections http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/169 <p>Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is gram positive, catalase positive cocci which belongs to the family of Staphylococcaceae and is long known as clinical and foodborne pathogen. The emergence of multidrug resistance strain of S. aureus which is methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) challenges the health care system because it can cause wide variety of hospital and community acquired skin and soft tissue infections which are difficult to treat. The virulence of S. aureus is because of different factors which includes toxins, enzymes and superantigens. S. aureus produce variety of exotoxins, enterotoxins and exfoliative toxins which contributes to the virulence of S. aureus. Hemolysin toxins produce by S. aureus strains are associated with different skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and can cause the lysis of RBCs. Hemolysins are regulated by accessory gene regulator (agr) and is required for the enhanced expression of virulence factors secreted by S. aureus. Hemolysins have leucolytic activity and can help in iron scavenging from host. The most important toxin is alpha hemolysin which can induce the apoptosis and cause the lysis of epithelial cells, erythrocytes and keratinocytes. Human immune cells are affected by beta hemolysin and gamma hemolysin is a biocomponent toxin. Delta hemolysin is low molecular weight exotoxin which belongs to the class of phenol soluble modulins.</p> Adnan Shahid Afsheen Rafiq Copyright (c) 2021 Adnan Shahid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 152 160 Cell Transplantation Therapies to Reverse Type 1 Diabetes: A review http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/116 <p>Stem cell technology is demonstrating promising advancements in cure of diseases due its differentiation ability. Type 1 diabetes is mainly caused by autoimmune β cells destruction. In this review, we focus on treatment procedures of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) with numerous stem cells (SCs) i.e hPSCs, MSCs, hESCs, BMSCs, AFSCs, HSCs and islet cells (that are not stem cells but they are approved worldwide and are being successfully used to permanently reverse T1D). A brief overview of this disease along with the advancements in treatment of T1D with stem cells is discussed. Biomaterial encapsulation to avoid immune rejection and improved immunomodulation and immune tolerance via drugs /bioengineering techniques makes the outcomes of SC therapies more efficient and productive, hence, proving to be another future milestone of completely reversing type 1 diabetes especially in those patients who got clinically diagnosed at an early stage and then received prompt treatment of either restoration of already available β cells functionality or transplantation of purified and functional SCs differentiated insulin producing cells to normalize the glycemic control and homeostasis.</p> Amrah Inam Zia Alam Obaid Ullah Shah Misbah Fanxiong Shi Copyright (c) 2021 Amrah Inam, Obaid Ullah Shah, Misbah, Zia Alam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 95 111 Dietary intake to help prevent Covid-19 implications: The devil is in the detail http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/181 <p>One of the most frequent antecedents of mortality in world is coronavirus that proceeds multitude metabolic disorders and is consequence of damaged lungs that is ultimately caused by contagious infection and virus called coronavirus. It effects people of every age mostly dominating in child, aged, people who have already poor immune system and lungs related disorders. It has tremendous effects on body affecting physical, emotional, cognitive and intellectual abilities as well. It leads to various clinical moderate to severe complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, coughing up blood, persistent chest pain, fever, SOB (shortness of breath), coughing up sputum, chills, sore throat, respiratory sputum production (phlegm), loss of sense and smell, headache, muscle aches, rashes and diarrhea etc. One of the most imprudent factors examined in these patients is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well which refers to respiratory failure, a mechanism in which body is unable to respond normally sequentially results by high level of widespread inflammation in lungs. Penurious immune system which contributes to higher rate of mortality worldwide present strong association with COVID-19. Metabolic disturbances contribute to the development and progression of respiratory distress, as well as they have serious consequences in next stages of life that can have harmful effects on health. In this review we will discuss the pathophysiology as well as the signs and symptoms of COVID-19, the morbidities related to this disease and the treatment required controlling this disorder.</p> Sana Noreen Abdul Rehman Rabia Kanwal Saba Saleem Ayesha Sadiqa Mudassir Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Sana Noreen, Abdul Rehman, Rabia Kanwal, Saba Saleem, Ayesha Sadiqa, Mudassir Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 20 27 Increased pollution due to COVID-19 pandemic and bioremediation: A dire need of management http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/158 <p>The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the effects of COVID-19 on macro-plastic pollution and to consider short-term and long-term scenarios for its possible environmental and human health consequences and to discuss possible strategies to address and overcome key challenges. It was emphasized that, whether or not they are involved in a healthy health crisis, future actions should reflect the balance between public health and environmental protection, as there is no doubt that they are interrelated with bioremediation and microbial metabolism in the presence of optimal environmental conditions. Bioremediation uses natural and psychological microorganisms to break down toxic and harmful substances aerobically and anaerobically. It can be handled by a mixed microbial consortium or pure microbial strains on site (in situ) or off site (in the case of case) Phyto therapy or even natural care. Nutrients suitable for impurities, especially petroleum hydrocarbons are researched technologies for us, for this a biotechnological approach designed for bioremediation and observation. COVID 19 Pandemic pushed the world into a new challenge of waste management. In general, physicochemical technologies are used, which allow for proper ecological biomedical processes. Some bacteria are mobile, feel the contamination, and move towards it to neutralize it. This review emphasizes on current pollution, which is result of COVID 19 pandemic, as people follow use and discard strategies for different things which is a threat to our environment.</p> Malali Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Malali Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 61 64 Organ Transplantation, Pros, Cons, and illustrations: A Basic Awareness to the Public http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/139 <p>Solid-organ transplantation saves the lives of patients affected by end-stage organ failure and enhances the quality of life. It has been developed in the last two decades and provides amazing results for children and young people and increases the growing number of elderly transplant patients with organ transplantation. Use of corticosteroids, vaccines, and other drugs to avoid infection in diseased patients. Several approaches have been developed to prolong organ obtainability, including living donor liver transplantation, split liver transplantation, and application of expanded criteria for donors and donation after circulatory death grafts. Unprincipled practices in many countries are due to the availability of organs. Organ transplantation requires screening and comparative contraindications in the recipient. The authors want to give a general awareness to the public, which is essential to know for donating and receiving organs from others.</p> Hindustan Abdul Ahad Chinthaginjala Haranath Bhupalam Pradeepkumar Chittem Vinay Chalamatigari Yoga Chandra Sekhar Reddy Mitaigiri Shaik Sajid Balaiah Gari Mani Raja Rao Manjoor Ahamad Syed Shaik Mohammed Yusuf Copyright (c) 2021 Hindustan Abdul Ahad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 4 Issue 1 168 174