Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls <p>The Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences (AJLS) (eISSN 2663-1040) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal of free publication, published under Abasyn University, Pakistan. AJLS is a multidisciplinary journal, which publishes high quality, original and the most important scientific advances in life sciences. The emphasis is on publishing quality novel research papers, full-length review, mini-reviews and short communications in specific areas of Life Sciences.</p> <p>AJLS covers various disciplines of life sciences, such as:</p> <ul> <li>Biotechnology</li> <li>Microbiology</li> <li>Molecular Biology</li> <li>Bioinformatics</li> <li>Pharmaceutical</li> <li>Biomedical Sciences</li> <li>Nanobiology</li> <li>Biochemistry</li> <li>Botany</li> <li>Zoology</li> <li>Environmental Sciences</li> <li>Genetics</li> <li>Agriculture</li> </ul> Abasyn University en-US Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences 2616-9754 <p>The content of AJLS is licensed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).</p> A Review: An Insight into the Potential of Biological Control of Ticks in Domestic and Wild Animals http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/284 <p>Ticks are hematophagous arthropods that transmit pathogens to humans, animals and poultry birds, mostly in tropical and subtropical regions globally, causing considerable economic and health losses by serving infectious vectors. In endemic locations of the world, tick-borne diseases have become a public health issue. Ticks biting causes anemia in animals and also impair their hide quality. Therefore, the current review article focused on the biological control of ticks. Ticks, like any other creature, are susceptible to various infectious agents (<em>Anaplasma phagocytophilum</em>, <em>Babesia bigemina, B. gibsoni, Hepatozoon canis, H. americanum, Theileria annulate, T. taurotragi etc</em>). Ticks can become infected with rickettsia, spirochetes, viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Some protozoans and worms infiltrate ticks and reproduce inside them, killing them. Fungus (<em>Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticiliium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana</em>), bacteria (Bacillus), nematodes (<em>Steinernema glaseri</em>, <em>S. carpocapsae</em>), and parasitoids (<em>Ixodiphagus</em> species.) have proved effective biological agents to control ticks. Insects are also a type of natural tick enemy. Ticks that are engorged with blood and while moulting are the most vulnerable to insect predation and eaten by spiders, ants, beetles, dragonflies, and wasps (Ixodiphagus)<em>.</em> Ticks are also preyed upon by amphibians and reptiles. Birds such as yellow-billed oxpecker (<em>Buphagus africanus</em>), helmeted guineafowl and Galliformes are good predators of ticks. Biological agents affect only target pests (ticks), do not destroy beneficial natural enemies and are safer for the ecosystem and humans. By keeping in view, the significance of biological agents, we highly recommend them in integrated tick management program that could minimize the tick population.</p> Muhammad Jamil Noman Latif Jaweria Gul Muhammad Kashif Arsalan Khan Mubarik Ali Norina Jabeen Muhammad Shehzad Khan Imran Qazi Namat Ullah Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Jamil, Noman Latif, Jaweria Gul, Muhammad Kashif, Arsalan Khan, Mubarik Ali, Norina Jabeen, Muhammad Shehzad Khan, Imran Qazi, Namat Ullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 Issue 2 51 67 Effects of environmental factors on the physiology and development of honey bees http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/282 <p>Environmental aspects have a substantial impact on the physiological and morphological attributes of social bees. Living organisms including plants, animals, and human are much influenced by the environment. Environmental factors including temperature, nutrition, light, beehive conditions and social interactions are compelling agents in alteration of morphology, development, and health of honeybees. Beekeeping may also be at risk due to climate change effect on agriculture, which appears to be a major concern for the sector. Temperature variations impair the honeybee colony's internal functions, including food storage, brood rearing, and social stability. Colony collapse has been caused by nutritional stress brought on by habitat loss, infestation by various pests and diseases, and chemical exposure. The honeybees decline, queens are replaced, and eventually the colony breaks down and dies by the viruses and parasites. Foraging behaviour is influenced by temperature as activity levels drop as the temperature rises. The foraging activity peaked at 20° C and peaked at 43° C. Like humans, nutrition affects the gut microbiome of bees, makes them more susceptible to disease, shortens their life span, and is the primary factor in the collapse of honeybee colonies. Comprehensive investigation on the influence of environmental changes on honeybee condition and protection against hazardous environmental circumstances. It has been shown that since the start of industrialization, a variety of causes threatened honeybees’ lives. The protection of bees and biodiversity is an urgent matter of concern and demands serious efforts from different stake holders to play their legitimate role.</p> Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha Saima Naz Durali DANABAS Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha, Saima Naz, Durali DANABAS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 Issue 2 33 51 Comparative Analysis of Microbial Prevalence in Normal and Endometritic cows http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/280 <p>The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of microbial prevalence in normal and endometritic cows. To determine the causative microbes of endometritis, cows were divided into four groups, comprising 10 cows each. Group A: normal cows with no signs and symptoms. Group B: Young stock (fit for breeding) cows suffering from endometritis. Group C: milking cows suffering from Endometritis. Group D: dry cows suffering from Endometritis. Three sterile swabs were collected from all cows of four groups, thus making a total of 120 samples. Bacterial isolation and identification was performed according to bergey’s manual. Most common pathogen in the uterus of endometritic cows were <em>Escherichia coli</em> and then <em>Trueperella pyogenes </em>&gt; <em>Salmonella enterica &gt; Klebsiella pneumonia &gt; Bacillus subtilis &gt; Fusobacterium necrophorum &gt; Proteus vulgaris &gt; Staphylococcus aureus</em> &gt; <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae. </em>In normal cows, mostly numbers of isolates were gram positive. <em>S. aureus</em> was found to be most abundant in normal cows followed by <em>S. pneumoniae, B. subtilis, T. pyogenes, E. coli </em>and<em> K. pneumoniae.</em> Higher numbers of bacteria were found in endometritic cows as compared to normal cows. In conclusion, <em>E. coli</em> was found to be abundant pathogens in the diseased cows and <em>S. aureus</em> was mostly found in normal cows. This study provides information about prevalence of endometritis in cows which can be used as base to treat endometritic cows.</p> Muhammad Amjad Khan Ammara Shakeel Asmara Imtiaz Humaira Niamat Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Amjad Khan, Ammara Shakeel, Asmara Imtiaz, Humaira Niamat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 Issue 2 17 25 Prevalence and determinants of Asthma in adults in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/274 <p>Asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease that is caused by biological and environmental factors. These factors can be in the form of dust, chemicals, smoke, allergens, and viruses. Approximately, 315 million people are affected with asthma worldwide. This study is designed to determine the prevalence of asthma in adults of different ages and its symptoms and main determinants in the Mardan and Peshawar districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar and Bacha Khan Medical Complex Mardan from May 2020 to March 2021. Data were collected from 1,400 individuals, and the prevalence of asthma was reported to be 22.57% (n=316). Asthma prevalence was reported to be more in men (55.7%) compared to women (44.3%) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Asthma was most common between people aged 18-27 years (31%). The majority of asthma patients were obese (53.8%) compared to non-obese (46.2%) patients. The most common symptoms of asthma were respiratory infections including the common cold, flu and pneumonia (89.87%), followed by chest pain, dyspnea (88.6%) and wheezing (83.54%). %). Risk factors for asthma include allergens exposure to dust mites, pollen, animal dander and cold air, family history of the disease, smoking, consumption of food containing sulphites and preservatives and use of certain medications including beta-blockers and aspirin in the KPK province of Pakistan. The government should conduct awareness campaigns in various cities, where proper lung function tests and other drugs using corticosteroids should be used to control the spread of the disease.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Shahrukh Khan Bakhtawar Sheeza Iqbal Asima Azam Asma-Ul-Husna Saima Qadeer Surrya Khanam Copyright (c) 2022 Shahrukh Khan, Bakhtawar, Sheeza Iqbal, Asima Azam, Asma-Ul-Husna, Saima Qadeer, Surrya Khanam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 Issue 2 26 32 Epidemiology of Hemonchus contortus in goat and sheep population of district Tank, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/285 <p><em>Hemonchus contortus</em> is a blood sucking parasite infesting sheep and goats throughout the world, thus significantly deteriorate the health and production of the animals, rendering huge economic losses to the livestock enterprise. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was designed for the estimation of epidemiological incidence of <em>Hemonchus contortus</em> in goat and sheep population in District Tank of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan and to analyze the associated risk factors. For this purpose, a sum of 400 fecal samples were randomly collected from sheep and goat populations in District Tank, during the year 2021-22 for the determination of prevalence of the <em>Haemonchus contortus</em>. The results revealed that overall prevalence of <em>Haemonchus contortus</em> in sheep and goats in Tank was 15.50 and 13.00%, respectively. The significant difference (P&lt;0.05) was seen in the prevalence percentage of this parasite in both species of small ruminants. The males in sheep showed a prevalence of 12.85%, while the females showed a prevalence of 16.92%, revealing a non-significant (P≥0.05) difference. The prevalence percentage in bucks was 12.72%, while the female goats showed a prevalence of 13.10%, hence, that were statistically non-significant (P≥0.05). It was concluded from the study that there was significant incidence of <em>Haemonchus contortus</em> in small ruminants in District Tank, and it declines the production of the animals and badly affect their health, production and growth. Therefore, strategic control measures should be adapted and devised to control the infestation of <em>Haemonchus contortus</em> in the animals.</p> Arsalan Khan Muhammad Jamil Jaweria Gul Habib Ullah Muhammad Kashif Atta Ur Rehman Imtiaz Khan Shahid Zeb Mubarik Ali Norina Jabeen Copyright (c) 2022 Arsalan Khan, Muhammad Jamil, Jaweria Gul, Habib Ullah, Muhammad Kashif, Atta Ur Rehman, Imtiaz Khan, Shahid Zeb, Mubarik Ali, Norina Jabeen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 Issue 2 68 73 Production of bacterial biosurfactants using whey waste as a substrate http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/278 <p>Surfactants of microbial origin offer significant value and versatility, and they are used in microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in the petroleum sector. Biosurfactant generation was investigated by isolating bacteria that were abundant in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Biosurfactants have gained admiration because of their low surface tension, biodegradability, high foaming, and ability to synthesis from renewable waste substrates, hence avoiding the need of non-renewable resources. Microbes can be studied on an experimental scale using a renewable, low-cost substrate. The biosurfactant activity was tested utilizing an uncommon source of nutrients that is cheese whey. Whey as a by-product of the cheese industry is typically dumped as desolate while it has lactose, the primary carbon source, and it is clearly suitable for microbial development. Microbes can be studied on an experimental scale using a renewable, low-cost substrate. In soil, surface active chemicals improve nutrient uptake by assisting microorganisms and crop yield in a variety of crops from varied regions. In contrast to previous examples, biosurfactants have several disadvantages in commercial manufacturing due to their low yield and high production costs.</p> Suman Nasir Aisha Waheed Qureshi Humaira Niamat Copyright (c) 2022 Suman Nasir, Aisha Waheed Qureshi, Humaira Niamat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 Issue 2 1 9 Histomorphological changes in gonads of Clupisoma naziri during spring and summer season http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/269 <p>Present study was conducted to analyse the effect of breeding and non-breeding seasons on histomorphological changes in gonads of <em>Clupisoma naziri</em>. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern Punjab, Pakistan, 43 mature fish of both sexes were gathered from the Indus River and its tributaries. In the non-breeding season (spring), both testis and ovaries went through a preparatory phase, with thick tunica albuginea and fast spermatogenesis in testes and the formation of cortical alveoli or yolk vesicles in the cortex of the cytoplasm in ovaries. The testicular lobules were loaded with spermatozoa and some spermatogenic cells during breeding season (summer), while the ovaries were filled with mature ovarian follicles. The breeding season is marked by spermatozoa leaking freely from testes and ovaries brimming with completely mature eggs. The gonadosomatic (GSI) results are consistent with the histomorphological results of gonads, as their values peak during breeding season and drop during non-breeding season. <em>C. naziri</em> breeds once a year during the summer season, according to the current study, and this information will aid aqua breeders in the culturing of this commercially significant catfish in Pakistan.</p> Muhammad Zubair Anjum Sana Batool Imran Ullah Riaz Hussain Pasha Muhammad Qayash Khan Iqra Nasir Nasir Mehmood Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Zubair Anjum, Sana Batool, Imran Ullah, Riaz Hussain Pasha, Muhammad Qayash Khan, Iqra Nasir Nasir Mehmood https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 Issue 2 10 16