Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls <p>The Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences (AJLS) (eISSN 2663-1040) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal of free publication, published under Abasyn University, Pakistan. AJLS is a multidisciplinary journal, which publishes high quality, original and the most important scientific advances in life sciences. The emphasis is on publishing quality novel research papers, full-length review, mini-reviews and short communications in specific areas of Life Sciences.</p> <p>AJLS covers various disciplines of life sciences, such as:</p> <ul> <li>Biotechnology</li> <li>Microbiology</li> <li>Molecular Biology</li> <li>Bioinformatics</li> <li>Pharmaceutical</li> <li>Biomedical Sciences</li> <li>Nanobiology</li> <li>Biochemistry</li> <li>Botany</li> <li>Zoology</li> <li>Environmental Sciences</li> <li>Genetics</li> <li>Agriculture</li> </ul> Abasyn University en-US Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences 2616-9754 <p>The content of AJLS is licensed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).</p> Description of a new species in the Genus Cosella Newkirk and Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) From China http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/76 <p>Eriophyoid mites are the most common groups of phytophagous mites found on various plants in Zhejiang Province of China. These mites are usually found on agricultural, horticultural, ornamental, and medicinal plants, including fruit and forest trees. Zhejiang Province is famous for its renowned mountains consist of Yandang, Putuo, Xuedou, Tianmu, Tiantai and Qingliang covered with green forest and wide range of vegetation due to which it is called as a treasure house of plants in China, which provide ecologically suitable living environment for eriophyoids species richness. Because of the diversity of host plants in Zhejiang Province, there is a dire need to investigate the presence of these minute creatures-especially those species that can be harmful to economic crops. Prior to this study genus <em>Cosella</em> Newkirk and Keifer held 43 species worldwide. Further one new leaf vagrant eriophyoid mite species in the genus <em>Cosella</em> was found from Zhejiang Province, China. A survey was carried out to determine the eriophyid mite fauna on natural vegetation of Linan City, Zhejiang Province China. One new species <em>Cosella linanensis </em>sp. nov. is described and illustrated from <em>Rhododendron ovatum</em> (Ericaceae). There was no apparent damage found on host plants where the new species was collected.</p> Agha Mushtaque Ahmed Shahjahan Rajput Xiao Yue Hong Muhammad Haroon Hullio Shahnawaz Khuhro Din Muhammad Soomro Copyright (c) 2021 Agha Mushtaque Ahmed, Shahjahan Rajput, Xiao Yue Hong, Muhammad Haroon Hullio, Shahnawaz Khuhro, Din Muhammad Soomro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 1 6 Assessing the genetic potential of mustard genotypes for water stress through PEG-6000 treatments http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/205 <p>Water stress is a primary constraint to achieve the goal of sustainable crop production. Water stress severely affects the seed production and oil yield of mustard genotypes. To overcome this problem, the development of water stress resilient mustard cultivars with potential seed and oil yield is a sustainable solution. Therefore, in vitro screening of mustard genotypes through PEG-6000 treatments were carried out on ten mustard genotypes. Along with control, two PEG-6000 levels were set to impose osmotic stress, such as, 6% and 10% PEG-6000. Data analyses depicted significant differences among all genotypes and between PEG-6000 treatments for all the studied traits, such as, shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, K+ content, Ca++ content and K+/Ca++ ratio, demonstrating the availability of genetic differences in mustard genotypes for future stress breeding. Under PEG-6000 (6% and 10%) treatments, the genotypes like AARI-Canola, Khanpur Raya, Dhoom-1, Super Raya, Galaxy and Coral-432 exhibited high performance for seedling traits and less reduction due to PEG-6000 treatments. Hence, these mustard genotypes tend to provide useful genetic potential for water stress breeding.</p> Saima Bano Abdul Wahid Baloch Shah Nawaz Mari M. Ubaidullah Shirazi Ghulam Hussain Jatoi Naila Gandahi Sajid Hussain Rao Muharam Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Saima Bano, Abdul Wahid Baloch, Shah Nawaz Mari, M. Ubaidullah Shirazi, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, Naila Gandahi, Sajid Hussain Rao, Muharam Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 46 58 EXPLORING THE BEST NP RATIO FOR WHEAT IN PERSPECTIVE OF PRESENT FARMER FERTILIZER BUDGET http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/237 <p>Farming community has a limited budget for various inputs like fertilizers for crops. Farmers usually allocate more money to nitrogen fertilizers while spending less money on phosphorus. Field experiments were carried out at farmers’ fields to explore the effect of various ratios of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer while keeping the farmers’ budget constant. Fertilizer experiments were conducted on wheat in Punjab Pakistan during years 2015-16 to 2017-18 at different locations in Punjab. Five different ratios (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1.7:1) of N and P were used with treatments of 152-37-0, 137-46-0, 117-58-0, 108-64-0, 160-114-0. Recommended dose of 160-114-60 kg ha-1 of N-P2O5-K2O was also applied for additional information. At maturity, crop was harvested and data of wheat grain for each site were recorded. During the year 2015-16, 12 sites produced higher wheat yield with NP ratio of 1.7:1 (T4) out of 14 field sites. Similarly in 2016-17, out of 19, 18 experimental sites produced higher grain yield with T4 as economically best fertilizer combination. Similar results were obtained during 2017-18 with T4 and out of 17, 15 experimental sites produced comparatively higher grain yield. Recommended dose @ 160-114-60 kg ha-1 produced highest grain yield. However, among farmer budget treatments, T4-a combination of nitrogen@108 kg ha-1 and phosphorus@64 kg ha-1 gave higher wheat production. It is concluded that farmers can increase the yield of wheat just by balancing the fertilizer and increasing the phosphorus use in place of nitrogen.</p> Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal Adnan Umair Zia Chishti Zafar Abbas Hafiz Riaz Ahmad Samina Hamid Nadeem Raza Khalid Mehmood Mughal Mahreen Khalid Iftikhar Haider Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Adnan Umair, Zia Chishti1, Zafar Abbas, Hafiz Riaz Ahmad, Samina Hamid, Nadeem Raza, Khalid Mehmood Mughal, Mahreen Khalid, Iftikhar Haider https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 100 108 Assessment of fish oil to check the stability and meat quality of some commercially available tin packed fish in Islamabad, Pakistan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/234 <p>Fish contains all the essential nutrients which is important for human health so it is important to analyse all the nutrients present in tin packed fish meat. Keeping in view its importance present study is conducted on the assessment of fish oil to check the stability and quality of fish meat by proximate analysis of commercially available tin packed fish. Four tin packed fish species i.e., Sardine (Sardinella longiceps), Red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) were collected from different supermarkets of Islamabad, Pakistan. Proximate analysis viz., crude protein, crude fat, moisture and ash contents of the fish meat has been done to evaluate the meat quality. The antioxidant activity in oil was also analysed by FRAP assay. The result indicated that maximum percentage of moisture i.e., 78.61% present in Skipjack Tuna meat, Pink Salmon contain highest percentage of crude protein i.e., 70.00%, Red Salmon contain highest percentage of crude fat i.e., 30.00% while Sardine and Skipjack Tuna contains highest percentage of ash contents i.e., 8.00% and the total antioxidant capacity (uM) is higher in oil of Red Salmon (24.35%) followed by Sardines (14.78%), Skipjack Tuna (9.86%) and Pink Salmon (9.48%). It was concluded that the fish meat after thermal processing contains suitable percentage of crude protein, crude fats, and moisture and ash contents.</p> Iqra Nasir nasir mehmood Bilqees Bano Ayesha Sikandar Muhammad Zubair Anjum Arooj Altaf Copyright (c) 2021 Iqra Nasir nasir mehmood, Bilqees Bano, Ayesha Sikandar, Muhammad Zubair Anjum, Arooj Altaf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 83 92 Repellent potential of medicinal oils against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) under laboratory conditions http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/131 <p>Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine repellency of five local medicinal oils i.e., neem <em>Azadirachta indica </em>A. Juss., castor <em>Ricinus communis</em> L., rapeseed <em>Brassica napus </em>L., lettuce <em>Lactuca sativa </em>L. and chamomile <em>Anthemis cotula </em>L. against <em>Tribolium castaneum </em>Herbst<em>, </em>each applied at 0.1, 0.5- and 1.0-ml doses. A glass cylinder divided into A, B and C sections with one end close was used. Fifty grams of wheat flour was placed at A and C ends. Twenty freshly emerged <em>T. castaneum </em>was released at the center of cylinder (B). The data was recorded after one-, two- and three-days to count number of <em>T. castaneum </em>at A and C for calculating percentage repellency. All the oils showed repellent potential against <em>T. castaneum</em> as their repellency increased with dose and time exposure. After three days, 100% repellency of <em>T. castaneum</em> was recorded in 0.5- and 1.0-ml doses of neem oil, followed by 6.67±3.33% repellency at 0.1 ml neem oil. After three days, the maximum repellency of <em>T. castaneum</em> in rapeseed, castor, chamomile, and lettuce was 86.67±7.26, 76.67±6.01, 76.67±4.41, and 75.00±7.64%, respectively, all recorded at 1.0 ml dose. Overall, neem oil exhibited significantly more repellency of <em>T. castaneum</em>, whereas castor, lettuce, rapeseed and chamomile were found non-significant with each other<em>.</em> Among doses, although highest repellency was recorded at 1.0 ml dose, but not significantly different from 0.5 ml dose of the individual oil. Therefore, 0.5 ml should be applied per 50 grams of wheat flour to get effective repellency of <em>T. castaneum.</em></p> Tanzeela-ul-Zahra Khaskheli Lubna Bashir Rajput Shafique Ahmed Memon Khalid Hussain Dhiloo Nafeesa Zahra Khaskheli Qurat Ul Ain Bhatti ARFAN AHMED GILAL Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzeela-ul-Zahra Khaskheli, Lubna Bashir Rajput, Shafique Ahmed Memon, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo, Nafeesa Zahra Khaskheli, Qurat Ul Ain Bhatti, ARFAN AHMED GILAL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 7 15 In-Vitro evaluation of probiotic effect of Lactobacillus species for the inhibition of biofilm formation by Candida albicans http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/216 <p>Probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus are well known to have a positive influence on the maintenance of human health by inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms. Lactic acid, bio-surfactant and bacteriocin are usually produced by Lactobacillus. Candida albicans as a dimorphic fungus grows both as yeast and filamentous cells. C. albicans is the most prevailing pathogen which causes the disease as an opportunistic pathogen in humans. The objective of this in vitro study model was to determine the effectiveness of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei isolated from local fruit sources against biofilm growths of C. albicans. Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar was used for isolation of bacteria. The confirmation of Lactobacillus species was carried out by microscopic as well as biochemical tests. C. albicans samples were collected from high-sugar mango fruit and the isolation was carried out by Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA). Biofilm of C. albicans was observed by micro-titration plate by using C. albicans cell suspension. The antagonistic effect of isolated Lactobacillus species on the biofilm produced by C. albicans was assessed using probiotic assay. Lactobacillus species induced a significant inhibition (p&lt;0.05) in biofilm growths of C. albicans. The anti-biofilm potential of all Lactobacillus species was significantly (p&lt;0.001) different from each other with Lactobacillus casei inducing maximum biofilm inhibition. The screening of probiotic characteristics and exometabolites produced by anti-candidal Lactobacillus species could precede efficacy studies for use these bacterial strains in cure of different candidal infections.</p> Muhammad Ashraf ZOHA NAEEM Muhammad Jawad Bashir Riffat Shamim Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Ashraf, ZOHA NAEEM, Muhammad Jawad Bashir, Riffat Shamim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 66 74 Invitro antimicrobial efficiency of Lawsonia inermis L (Henna) extracts against Multidrug Resistant Microorganisms http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/206 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Antibiotics are becoming less effective as drug resistance spreads throughout the world, making it ever more difficult to treat the disease. The effect of biotic stress on antimicrobial activity of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) was studied as an alternate to antimicrobial agents against multidrug resistant microorganisms. The study was carried out in Molecular Biochemistry Lab, Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The plant seedlings were given biotic stress with Fusarium solani. The induced extracts were harvested at different time intervals and the antimicrobial activity was investigated by disc diffusion method. The induced plant extracts revealed highest susceptibility against S. aureus (30±0.02) and Pasteurella multocida (30±0.01) at 12 hpi. The least activity was shown against all the strains at 0 hpi. The highest antifungal activity was found against Ganoderma lucidum (55±0.05) at 24 hpi. The results demonstrated a significant difference in the antimicrobial activities of all the strains with and without fungal stress (P&lt;0.05). The fungal induced extracts of Lawsonia inermis L (Henna) with enhanced antimicrobial activity may have the potential of being alternative and cost- effective agents against antimicrobial resistance.</p> Shehla Javaid Amer Jamil Hina Awais Samiah Shahid Saira Khan Hafiz Muhammad Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 Shehla Javaid, Amer Jamil, Hina Awais, Samiah Shahid, Saira Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Rehman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 59 65 Screening of Strobilanthes urticifolia Wall.ex Kuntze for Antitermite and Insecticidal Activities http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/195 <p>Leaves, stem, roots and flowers of this plant were extracted with methanol and fractionated with different solvents i.e., <em>n</em>-Hexane, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate. Screening of the individual extract and fractions showed that <em>Strobilanthes urticifolia Wall.ex Kuntze</em> has significant effects against termite and different insects. The extract and their fractions were evaluated against <em>Odontotermes obesus</em>, the test termite. Between the tested extracts, crude methanolic extract (CME) displayed the highest anti-termite potential (100% mortality on day 2) while aqueous fraction showed the lowest mortality rate (64% on day 3). CME and individual fractions were also tested against various insects. CME showed highest result (80%) in terms of mortality against <em>Tribolium castenum,</em> while <em>n</em>-hexane fraction showed moderate result (60%) in terms of mortality against <em>Callosbrachus analis</em> and all other fractions have no or low activity against tested insects. The results obtained from the experiments suggested the potential of <em>Strobilanthes urticifolia</em> in the control of termite and insects.</p> Arshad Farid Salmah Ismail Roomah Javed Maria Hayat Muhammad Muzammal Muhammad Hashim Khan Sheikh Abdur Rashid Copyright (c) 2021 Arshad Farid, Salmah Ismail, Roomah Javed, Maria Hayat, Muhammad Muzammal, Muhammad Hashim Khan, Sheikh Abdur Rashid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 40 45 Targeting of FliC gene for the identification of Salmonella Typhimurium in Poultry chicken by PCR in District Swat in District Swat http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/235 <p><em>Salmonella</em> is one of the prominent causes of food borne infection all over the world. The present study was performed to examine the existence of <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em> in poultry chicken samples and chicken wooden cutting boards. For this purpose, a total of 100 samples were collected to detect <em>S. typhimurium</em>. The samples were streaked on Salmonella Shigella agar media (SS media) for the growth of <em>Salmonella</em>. Out of total samples, 50% were appeared as positive on media plates. Total percentage of <em>Samonella</em> by sample wise was found to be higher in the liver (85%) followed by chicken wooden cutting boards (63%), food and proventriculus (50%), oesophagus and tissues (33%). Total percentage of <em>Salmonella</em> by area wise was found to be higher in Charbagh and Koza Bandai and Kanju (80%), Khwazakhela (55%), Mingora (55%), Sambat and Matta (30%). DNA was isolated from the positive samples and amplified with FliC gene-specific primer using optimized PCR protocol for the confirmation of <em>S. typhimurium</em>. In the screened samples, 28% of <em>S. typhimurium</em> were observed as positive samples by amplifying FliC gene sequence having a molecular band size of 620bp. Out of the total <em>S. typhimurium </em>positive samples, 6 were positive from Khwazakhela, 2 from Charbagh, 4 from Sambat and Matta and 2 from Mingora.</p> Wajid Khan Jatish Kumar Mehboob Ullah Muhammad Nazir Uddin Jafar Khan Habib Un Nabi Copyright (c) 2021 Wajid Khan, Jatish Kumar, Mehboob Ullah, Muhammad Nazir Uddin, Jafar Khan, Habib Un Nabi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 93 99 Comparative performance of top cross and population cross hybrids in white Maize using a common tester http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/145 <p>Improved maize populations and cross hybrids can be beneficial alternatives for commercial single-cross hybrids and good elite sources for diverse inbred lines. A set of 22 genotypes comprised 10 population crosses, 10 top crosses, and two check cultivars were evaluated at Cereal Crop Research Institute, Pirsabak-Nowshera, in a randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2014. This research's major aims were to determine the magnitude of heterosis and the degree of character association between yield and its attributes to select superior genotypes from the breeding material. Data were recorded on maturity, and yield associated traits, where significant genetic variability was observed among the genotypes for all the studied traits except days to silking. Mean values for the studied traits ranged from 44 to 52 days for tasseling, 48 to 54 days for anthesis, 49 to 54 days for silking, -1.33 to 2.33 for the anthesis-silking interval, 2.53 to 8.47 kg for fresh ear weight, 12 to 16 rows for kernel rows cob<sup>-1</sup>, 27.15 to 37.49 g for 100-kernel weight and 2830 to 7649 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> for grain yield. Days to silking, anthesis silking interval, and kernel rows cob<sup>-1</sup> showed low broad sense heritability (12.08%, 24.84%, 27.59%), days to tasseling, days to anthesis revealed moderate heritability (40.53%, 36.62%), while fresh ear, 100-kernel weight, and grain yield exhibited high broad-sense heritability (94.89%, 82.33%, 90%). Negative and significant heterotic values were observed for maturity traits, while heterotic values were positive and significant for yield-associated traits. Correlation analysis revealed that characters like fresh ear weight (r = 0.93) and 100-kernel weight (r = 0.50) manifested a strong positive and significant association with grain yield. Based on mean performance and grain yield, promising hybrids were 3008F<sub>3</sub> x 2007-WC and 3008F<sub>3</sub> x 2010. </p> Faizan Mahmood Hidayatur Rahman Nazir Ahmad Ammara Khalid Copyright (c) 2021 Faizan Mahmood, Hidayat-Ur-Rahman, Nazir Ahmad, Ammara Khalid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 16 28 Evaluation of different fungicides against stalk rot of Maize caused by Fusarium moniliforme http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/217 <p>Maize is the world's leading crop and is widely cultivated as a cereal grain, it is the only food cereal crop that can be grown in diverse seasons, ecologies and uses. Maize yields in Pakistan are very poor due to insect pests and diseases. Among them, the stalk rot of maize caused by Fusarium moniliforme is very important. Keeping in view the huge losses caused by the disease, the present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of selected fungicides against the disease development under field conditions and on the plant growth and yield parameters. A total of six fungicides were used such as Scoure, Plyrem, Topguard, Ridomil, Fenatac M, and Cobox with three different concentrations i.e., (50, 100 and 200 ppm). The effect on disease incidence, growth and yield parameters such as plant height, root length, root weight, leaf weight per plant, grain weight, and biological yield (t acre-1) were recorded. The results showed that all applied fungicides significantly affect against stalk rot of maize caused by F. moniliforme. The maximum plant height, root length, root weight, leaf weight per plant, grain weight and biological yield (t acre-1) was noted under Ridomil and Scoure fungicides, followed by Topguard, Cobox, Plyrem and Fenatac M. Whereas, the minimum plant height, root length, root weight, leaf weight per plant, grain weight, and biological yield (t acre-1) was observed under control plants where no fungicides were applied.</p> Absar Mithal Jiskani Zubair Ahmed Nizamani Manzoor Ali Abro Khadim Hussain Wagan Ghulam Mustafa Nizamani Riaz Ali Nahiyoon Yasmeen Samo Copyright (c) 2021 Absar Mithal Jiskani, Zubair Ahmed Nizamani, Manzoor Ali Abro, Khadim Hussain Wagan, Ghulam Mustafa Nizamani, Riaz Ali Nahiyoon, Yasmeen Samo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 75 82 Human Gut MicroBiota in Transferring the Blues: A Review http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/212 <p>For more than 2000 years, Hippocrates' notion that has been true that “the beginning of every disease is at the gut”, microbiology, neurology, and gastroenterology have all progressed with every clock’s tick and noteworthy success in contemporary medicine is seen and made in their trajectory and relationships .Gut microbial flora has lately been discovered to have a have an important effect on physiology, that also includes gut brain Organization, and behaviour. Human beings live in a microbial environment, coevolving with the microbiota—a huge amount of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses that live within their bodies, particularly in the intestines. Microorganisms' roles in forming the intestinal flora might be classified as beneficial, harmful, or neutral to the host. The impact that of the gut microbiota on the immune system, brain development, and behaviour has come under the radar recently. In the previous five years, PubMed has published over 90% of the more than 4,000 articles on microbiota. The potential of the enteric microbiota and its metabolites to regulate gut permeability, mucosal immune function, intestinal motility and sensitivity, as well as the activity of the enteric nervous system, modulates gastrointestinal (GI) functions (ENS). Dysbiosis (alteration of the gut microbiota) occurs as a result of gastrointestinal disease or its treatment. Dybiosis is linked to all major gut illnesses, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and celiac disease. The purpose this review serves is to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of the gut-brain axis, as well as the gut microbiota's potential impact on depression. It will also cover current advances in specific processes of gut microbiota-brain interaction, keeping in mind the impact of psychological stress.</p> Ibrar Khan Khola Zia Urooba Naveed Sidra tul Muntaha Azam Hayat Mujadda -Ur-Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 Ibrar Khan, Khola Zia, Urooba Naveed, Sidra tul Muntaha, Azam Hayat, Mujadda -Ur-Rehman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 109 125 Crispr/Cas9 Endonucleases: A New Era Of Genetic Engineering http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/192 <p>In modern genetic engineering, there is always development towards better ways for therapies of different diseases in the most efficient way. Genetic engineering approaches use the nucleases to cut the DNA. Meganucleases, ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR i.e. clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats determine PAM sequence. These sequences are present as direct repeats that are separated by specific Spacers and have Cas genes which are present adjacent to the spacer regions. Microbe’s immunity is related to the presence of CRISPR sequences, which can cleave and bind the DNA at specific sequences. CRISPR is classified into two classes that are further divided into 5 types. Most commonly used class is type 2 which work along the CRISPR associated protein called Cas 9 obtained from Streptococcus pyogene. Cas 9 is a multi-subunit protein with two nuclease domains called HNH and RuvC like domains. The presence of a smaller sequence upstream to the DNA that is to be targeted is important for specific cleavage and is called the Seed Sequence. CRISPR have many applications in genome editing and beyond genome editing.</p> Sana Fatima Muhammad Muzammal Muzammil Ahmad Khan Arshad Farid Muhammad Ammar Khan Muhammad Kamran Junaid Qayyum Maha Qureshi Muhammad Nawaz Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Sana Fatima, Muhammad Muzammal, Muzammil Ahmad Khan, Arshad Farid, Muhammad Ammar Khan, Muhammad Kamran, Junaid Qayyum, Maha Qureshi, Muhammad Nawaz Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 Issue 2 29 39