Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls <p>The Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences (AJLS) (eISSN 2663-1040) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal of free publication, published under Abasyn University, Pakistan. AJLS is a multidisciplinary journal, which publishes high quality, original and the most important scientific advances in life sciences. The emphasis is on publishing quality novel research papers, full-length review, mini-reviews and short communications in specific areas of Life Sciences.</p> <p>AJLS covers various disciplines of life sciences, such as:</p> <ul> <li>Biotechnology</li> <li>Microbiology</li> <li>Molecular Biology</li> <li>Bioinformatics</li> <li>Pharmaceutical</li> <li>Biomedical Sciences</li> <li>Nanobiology</li> <li>Biochemistry</li> <li>Botany</li> <li>Zoology</li> <li>Environmental Sciences</li> <li>Genetics</li> <li>Agriculture</li> </ul> Abasyn University en-US Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences 2616-9754 <p>The content of AJLS is licensed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).</p> Assessment of genetic variability in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/245 <p>The evaluation of phenotypic characteristics is critical in the selection of top cotton lines. Cotton breeders want to use a variety of genotypes in hybrids to segregate for desired characteristics while also allowing for selection and genetic gain. Breeders can use phenotypic diversity information to aid in parental selection. In this context, a set of 12 advance cotton lines were evaluated for genetic diversity at Cotton Research Institute, Tandojam during Kharif season 2020. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications, while seven agronomical traits were included in the experiment. The mean squares of genotypes were significantly differences (P&lt;0.05) for all studied traits, representing that genetic diversity is existed in these cotton germplasms for further utilization. Considering the agronomic performance, the genotype B-2 was on top in average values for plant height (174.40 cm), bolls plant<sup>-1</sup> (42.067), seed cotton yield plant<sup>-1</sup>(139.34 g), GOT% (37.800%) and staple length (28.00 mm), hence indicates its valuable breeding resources for future cotton breeding. The greater genetic distance of 92.683 was found between B5 and B2 genotypes, revealing that this pair may be used in hybridization program for vigorous hybrid production and better selection in subsequent generations. The variance percentages for the first, second, and third principle components were 42.70, 23.10, and 17.20, respectively; the first three components contributed 83.00 percent of the variation for genotypes, which is high enough for cotton crop improvements. The cotton genotypes were divided into three categories based on phenotypic data. The many groups obtained might be beneficial in generating cotton genotypes with a variety of characteristics and diversifying the cotton gene pool.</p> Muhammad Junaid Mari Abdul Wahid Baloch Shah Nawaz Mari Liaquat Ali Bhutto Naila Gandahi Amanullah Mari Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Junaid Mari, Abdul Wahid Baloch, Shah Nawaz Mari, Liaquat Ali Bhutto, Naila Gandahi, Amanullah Mari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 103 110 Utilization of RSM for optimization of physical variables to improve bacteriocin production from Lactobacillus plantarum strain MS http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/266 <p>The utilization of natural antimicrobial substances has been increased in the pharmaceutical sector due to their stability and inhibition activity against pathogenic microorganisms. In the current study, the bacteriocin synthesis by locally isolated <em>Lactobacillus plantarum </em>MS from yogurt, has been optimized by using response surface methodology. Statistical optimization of physical variables by using Box-Behnken design, 3200 AU/mL bacteriocin activity was detected at 30 °C temperature, 18h incubation time and pH 6 against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The resulting bacteriocin was found to be stable a broad range of pH (2-12) and temperature (37-100 °C) but the activity of bacteriocin was slightly disturbed at 121 °C. Besides, bacteriocin showed stability after treatment with various enzymes (catalase, amylase, and lipase), salt (NaCl), and surfactants (triton X-100, EDTA, and SDS) but found sensitive by treating with proteolytic enzymes (proteinase K and trypsin) in comparison with untreated bacteriocin. Because of such biochemical characteristics, these antibacterial peptides could be possibly incorporated in the field of pharmacy to fulfil consumer’s demand for natural remedies.</p> Mahwish Salman Anam Tariq Muhammad Shahid Amna Rana Mehwish Naseer Copyright (c) 2022 Mahwish Salman, Anam Tariq, Muhammad Shahid, Amna Rana, Mehwish Naseer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 121 133 The Prevalence of Scabies in District Abbottabad of Pakistan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/256 <p>Scabies is a skin infection which is caused by pathogen <em>Sarcoptes scabiei</em>. It is a contagious disease which is transmitted from one to another person through direct contact but can also be transmitted due to sharing of things like towels, clothing etc. It was estimated that almost 300 million cases of scabies occur worldwide. It is characterized by itching, rash, sores and thick crusts on different body parts such as fingers, axilla, wrist, and genitalia etc. The burrow ink and handheld tests are mostly used to screen a large number of patients. The current study was conducted to analyze the 3 years trend of scabies epidemiology on Tehsil level in different health care units of District Abbottabad during January 2017 December 2019. During the study period total 44,569 cases were reported in District Abbottabad. Results have shown that Primary health care facilities have highest proportion of scabies (67.38%) and prevalence was highest during 2018 (37.90%). The Highest frequency (32%) of scabies occurred during summer with peak in July. Tehsil Abbottabad (67.21%) showed high prevalence as compared to Havelian (32.79%). Risk factors for scabies prevalence were might be higher humidity, physical overcrowding, illiteracy and low socioeconomic status. There is a positive association between number of cases of scabies, temperature and humidity because these factors provide suitable conditions for parasite growth and their survival in human body. The current findings may help the government in making infrastructure for the health-care system development in future.</p> Falak Naz Tariq Hajira Bibi Ibrar Khan Sidra Tul Muntaha Aneela Rehman Azam Hayat Mujaddad Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2022 Falak Naz Tariq, Hajira Bibi, Ibrar Khan, Sidra Tul Muntaha, Aneela Rehman, Azam Hayat, Mujaddad Ur Rehman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 93 102 In silico Analysis of PRODH Mutations and their biological significance in disease etiology http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/251 <p>In the present study, we performed in silico analysis on all reported mutations of PRODH in order to investigate their biological significance. 3D models of wildtype and mutant PRODH were predicted using I-TASSER. Protein-protein docking was done with Cluspro, while protein-substrate docking was done with Auto Dock tools. Alignment of 3D models (various mutant with wildtype) revealed that Arg185Gln (73.83%) and Gln19Term (6.25%) had the highest and lowest similarity indices, respectively. Enzyme pocket prediction identified the second largest active site pocket containing substrate proline binding residues Leu527, Tyr548, and Arg563. Moreover, docking of mutant and wildtype PRODH with its close interactor ALDH4A1 showed differences with respect to position and nature of interacting amino acids residues. We observed that the nature of amino acid substitution and the number of bonds affect the binding of proline molecule with enzyme, and therefore, affect its biological activity.</p> Muhammad Muzammal Muzammil Ahmad Khan Sana Fatima Abida Bibi Shahzadi Raheela Anum Sumra Wajid Abbasi Ansar Ahmad Abbasi Iftikhar Ahmed Syed Shakil Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Muzammal, Muzammil Ahmad Khan, Sana Fatima, Abida Bibi, Shahzadi Raheela Anum, Sumra Wajid Abbasi, Ansar Ahmad Abbasi, Iftikhar Ahmed, Syed Shakil Abbas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 72 83 In Vitro Supplementation of Glycine Improves Quality of Cryopreserved Bull Semen http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/270 <p>The extender supplementation of glycine on quality of cryopreserved bull sperm was reported in current study. Three adult Sahiwal bulls was used for semen collection by artificial vagina having 42°C (three weeks) (replicates; n=18)). Collected semen was quickly shifted to laboratory for initial evaluation. Qualified semen ejaculates (&gt;60% motility, &gt;1mL volume, &gt;0.5billion/mL cons.) was diluted in tris extender having 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 and 20mM of glycine. Cooling of extended semen to (4℃) was done in 2 hours and kept for 4 hours for equilibration. French straws were used for filling at (4℃), liquid nitrogen used for freezing. Highest percentages of post thaw sperm progressive motility and acrosome integrity were observed in extender containing 5mM of glycine compared to other treatments and control (P&lt;0.05). However, glycine supplementation in extender didn’t affect viability, chromatin integrity and plasma membrane integrity of bull sperm. In conclusion, glycine addition at 5 mM in extender improves quality of cryopreserved bull semen.</p> Shaista Bibi Rabea Ejaz Saima Qadeer Muhammad Sajjad Ansari Bushra Allah Rakha Sana Ullah Asma Ashraf Shamim Akhter Copyright (c) 2022 Shaista Bibi, Rabea Ejaz, Saima Qadeer, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari, Bushra Allah Rakha, Sana Ullah, Asma Ashraf, Shamim Akhter https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 147 152 Management of Chili leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) through resistant germplasm and Nutrients in relation to Environmental Factors http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/267 <p>Chili (<em>Capsicum annuum</em> L.) is an important commercial spicy crop grown in many regions across the world. Six chili varieties such as Zinia F1, Desi (Jalalpuri), Desi (Jalalpuri 2), Wonder Hot, Summer Queen F1, and Faisalabad Selection was evaluated against the most devastating and catastrophic Chili’s leaf curl disease caused by Begomovirus Chili leaf curl virus (ChiLCV). Out of all six varieties, Wonder Hot and Summer Queen F<sub>1</sub> showed moderately resistant (MR) response whereas three varieties including Zinia F<sub>1</sub>, Desi (Jalalpuri) and Desi (Jalalpuri 2) had a moderately susceptible (MS) response, and only one variety namely Faisalabad Selection, expressed resistant (R) response. Four varieties; Desi (Jalalpuri), Desi (Jalalpuri 2), Zinia F1, and Wonder Hot, were used for management purposes with four micronutrients in combinations, namely T<sub>1</sub> (ZnSO<sub>4 </sub>+ CuSO<sub>4</sub>), T<sub>2</sub> (MnSO<sub>4 </sub>+ CuSO<sub>4</sub>), T<sub>3</sub> (Boric Acid + CuSO<sub>4</sub>) and T<sub>4 </sub>(ZnSO<sub>4 </sub>+ CuSO<sub>4 </sub>+ MnSO<sub>4 </sub>+ Boric Acid). When compared to control (58.14%), only T<sub>4 </sub>demonstrated minimum disease severity (11.63%). In the case of disease incidence, T<sub>4 </sub>gave the best results with minimum disease incidence (35.65%) as compared to control (92.59%). Treatments were able to decrease the disease progression even in the existing of favorable environmental factors.There was significant (p˂0.05) but positive correlation between wind speed and disease severity. Wind speed was highly correlated with the disease severity of variety Wonder Hot (r=0.91). We concluded that the application of micronutrient activate the plant defense system and at the same time suppress the vector populations.</p> Aleena Ghafoor Safdar Ali Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan Muhammad Usman Ghani Rizwan Mahmood Saira Azmat Asim Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Aleena Ghafoor, Safdar Ali, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Rizwan Mahmood, Saira Azmat, Asim Ali Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 134 146 Interactive impact of potassium and sulphur to enhance the growth and yield characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris) genotypes http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/260 <p>Potassium and sulphur are macronutrient and important for improving the growth, yield as well as quality of legume species but unfortunately are being fully ignored in the farmer’s field for lentil cultivation. Due to their deficiency, yield of lentil crop has decreased up to marked levels. The performance of five lentil genotypes namely GS-6, GS-10, P-14216, P-14223 and NVUT-E3 was evaluated against different potassium and sulphur levels i.e. K-S = 00-00, K-S = 30-15, K-S = 60-30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> at the experimental fields of Pulse Research Sub-Station, Tandojam. The results indicated a significant (P≤0.05) impact of potassium and sulphur on lentil genotypes for all measured traits. The growth and yield traits of all genotypes were enhanced as the potassium and sulphur levels were increased. Highest growth and yield traits were recorded when the plants were treated with K-S = 60-30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The control plots showed lower performance. Among the genotypes, GS-10 responded well as compared to other genotypes. While the performance of genotype NVUT-E3 was observed lower. It was concluded that potassium and sulphur at the rate of 60-30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> proved best for producing higher yields, while genotype GS-10 exhibited maximum results in all growth and yield traits.</p> Umed Ali Syed Mushtaq Ahmed Shah Tahmina Shar Ghulam Hussain Jatoi Mahpara Khatoon Bhutto Irfan Ahmed Naimatullah Koondhar Copyright (c) 2022 Umed Ali, Syed Mushtaq Ahmed Shah, Tahmina Shar, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, Mahpara Khatoon Bhutto, Irfan Ahmed, Naimatullah Koondhar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 111 120 Acute Respiratory Infections in Northern Pakistan: An Epidemiological Approach http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/255 <p>Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are mostly infections of the upper respiratory tract which consists up of airways. They are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and cause 1.9 million deaths of children annually. In Pakistan, estimated 20-30% of the total childhood deaths &gt;5 are caused by ARIs. Common AURIs are common cold, acute inflammation of URT i.e. larynx, pharynx, mucus membranes, sinuses and middle ear. Most common bacteria are <em>Streptococcus spp., Haemophillus spp. </em>and <em>Staphylococcus spp.</em> etc. While, <em>Parainfluenza virus,</em> <em>Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, Coronavirus, Respiratory Syncytial irus, Adenovirus </em>and<em> Influenza virus</em> are the common ARIs causing viruses. This study analyzed the epidemiology of ARIs in different facility types between Jan 2017- Dec 2019 of District Abbottabad. During the 3 years study period, 4,66,048 cases were reported. Results have shown that Primary health facilities have highest proportion of ARIs and prevalence was highest during 2018 (84.46%). Highest (35%) frequency of ARIs occurred during winter with peak in December (12%). While, Tehsil Abbottabad showed high prevalence (68%) as compared to Havelian (32%). This fluctuation may be due to Risk factors that might be low humidity, indoor crowding, illiteracy and low-socioeconomic status. The current findings may help the government in making infrastructure for the health-care system development in future.</p> Shams-Ud-Duha Syed Hifza Bibi Ibrar Khan Sidra Tul Muntaha Aneela Rehman Azam Hayat Mujaddad Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2022 Shams-Ud-Duha Syed, Hifza Bibi, Ibrar Khan, Sidra Tul Muntaha, Aneela Rehman, Azam Hayat, Mujaddad Ur Rehman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 84 92 Morphometric analysis of soldier cast of Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) and Microtermes obesi (Holmgren) (Blattodea: Termitidae; Macrotermitinae) from three localities of Potohar region, Pakistan http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/268 <p>A great diversity of termite species is found all over the world, among these 53 species are identified from Pakistan. The knowledge about morphological features in soldier cast of termites is proved to be a technical tool for taxonomy and identification. In the present studies, the morphometric variations of external morphology in soldier caste of <em>Odontotermes obesus</em> (Rambur) and <em>Microtermes obesi</em> (Holmgren) from three different areas i.e. Gujar Khan (A), Rawalpindi (B) and Islamabad (C) were studied. About 36 characters like body, thorax, abdomen, from head to mandible tip, head, pronotum, postmentum, mandible, antenna (scape, pedicle, flagellum), and legs parts were used for morphometric measurements. The data were statistically analyzed for significant differences in their mean, standard deviation, standard error, 95% confidence interval, coefficient of variability and analysis of variance. “Student t-test” was used for the comparison of mean values using Minitab version 16. The results of the present study revealed no significant differences among the population samples collected from various localities. However little variations were observed in a few characters like antennal segments (pedicle, scape) and legs (trochanter, tibia) among the soldier cast which are adaptive in nature to survive in the environment.</p> Asma Ashraf Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi Saima Qadeer Abdur Rehman Azam Sana Ullah Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Asma Ashraf, Dr. Naveed Akhtar Qureshi, Dr. Saima Qadeer, Mr. Abdur Rehman Azam, Dr. Sana Ullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 153 176 Characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacterial strain IU10 http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/189 <p>Growing evidence has suggested that plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria can regulate, which can be used as biofertilizers, bio-stimulants, and biocontrol agent. In the present study, <em>Bacillus subtills</em> IU10 was isolated from plants and was subjected to advanced chromatography and spectroscopic techniques for the extraction and isolation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Up to 10 µg/mL of IAA was quantified in the bacterial extract using the [<sub>2</sub>H<sup>2</sup>]-IAA internal standards in GC-MS analysis. PVK agar containing Ca<sub>3</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> was used to measure the ability of IU10 to solubilize phosphate. The clear zones formed by phosphate solubilization were measured to assess the phosphate solubilization potential. Azurol-S (CAS) medium was used for measuring siderophore production. The orange halo circles were measured to quantify the siderophore production. Endophytic IU10 inoculated plants showed significantly improvement root to shoot length, biomass and chlorophyll as compared to control. The data indicates that IU10 produce phytohormones, siderophore and immobilize nutrients could be used as biofertilizer.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="650"> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Ihsan Ullah Muhammad Ali Muhammad Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Ihsan Ullah, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Ibrahim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 1 10 Anthesis and Booting: Two Critical Stages Vulnerable to Water Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) With Respect to Yield Production http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/24 <p>Six spring bread wheat varieties (AAS-11, BARS-09, Dharabi-11, Faisalabad-08, Chakwal-50 and Fatehjang-2016) and 4 elite lines of wheat (10FJ01, 12FJ26, 12FJ01 and 11FJS309) were analyzed with respect to water stress by providing them two types of treatments i.e., control (no stress) and strained treatment (20 days of stoppage of irrigation at booting and further 20 days of drought after anthesis) at Barani Agricultural Research Station, Fatehjang during 2017-18. Results of this study exhibited highly significant variations prevailed in all the wheat genotypes by viewing their mean performance with respect of all physiological and yield traits. AAS-11, Fatehjang-2016 and Dharabi-11 exhibited their best performance and pointed out elevated mean productivity (MP), stress tolerance index (STI), relative water content (RWC) and geometric mean productivity (GMP). Moreover, stress susceptibility index (SSI) and tolerance (TOL) was anticipated at lowest among the above-mentioned wheat varieties and lines. Based multivariate analysis (biplot) and dendrogram studies; AAS-11, Fatehjang-2016 and Dharabi-11 are most suitable wheat cultivars for drought tolerance at booting and anthesis stage. MP, STI, RWC, GMP, SSI and TOL are renowned to be favourable gauges for identification of drought tolerance wheat ideotype. Likewise, same wheat varieties also exhibited higher grain yield per plant that put them in higher ranked genotypes for making selections and recombination while improving wheat through breeding for drought resistant.</p> Shiraz Ali Muhammad Zeeshan Ghulam Nabi Manzoor Hussain Saadia Muhammad Imran Khan Waheed Arshad Ali Nawaz Amina Batool Muhammad Owais Copyright (c) 2022 Shiraz Ali, Muhammad Zeeshan, Ghulam Nabi, Manzoor Hussain, Saadia, Muhammad Imran Khan, Waheed Arshad, Ali Nawaz, Amina Batool, Muhammad Owais https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 11 23 In vitro bioassays of some plant extracts against Banana anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/240 <p>Anthracnose of banana caused by Colletotrichum musae is an invasive disease, which is difficult to control in the export process. Plant extracts used to control plant diseases are gradually becoming substitutes for traditional fungicides because they are safe for the human body and environmentally friendly. The study was conducted to record the prevalence of banana anthracnose in two locations and to determine the best medium for the growth of C. musae and botanical extracts for managing the fungus under in-vitro conditions. Six media viz., Ripen banana peels media (RBPM), Unripen banana peels media (URBPM), Ripen banana flash fruit media (RBFFM), Unripen banana flash fruit media (URBFFM), Banana leaf media (BLM) and Potato dextrose agar media (PDA), four botanical extracts including Garlic (GC), Mint (MT), Eucalyptus (EC) and Neem seed (NS) at 2, 4 and 6% concentrations were tested against the fungus and the control (CL) remain untreated. Potato dextrose agar media (PDA) was used as a standard semi-synthetic growth media. The prevailing frequency of the disease was high in the investigation area. The maximum linear mycelial growth of the C. musae was recorded on PDA (85 mm) followed by URBFFM (40 mm), RBFFM (26 mm) whereas the lowest mycelial growth was recorded on BLM (20 mm) and URBPM (8 mm). In-vitro experiments showed that PDA was the best medium for the mycelial growth of C. musae. Moreover, tested botanical extracts showed high variation in reducing the colony growth of the fungus. EC was found most effective in reducing the colony growth of the fungus followed by NS, GC and MT. These results suggest that all the botanical extracts may be potentially useful for controlling anthracnose of bananas, EC extract can be effectively used for the field experiment.</p> Naveed Ul Zaman Kumbher Absar Mithal Jiskani Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano Muhammad Mithal Jiskani Khadim Hussain Wagan Gul Bahar Poussio Copyright (c) 2022 Naveed Ul Zaman Kumbher, Absar Mithal Jiskani, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano, Muhammad Mithal Jiskani, Khadim Hussain Wagan, Gul Bahar Poussio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 24 30 In silico Analysis of Renilla Muelleri, Photinus Pyralis and Metridia Longa Luciferase http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/250 <p>Luciferase derived from different organism is widely used for various biological process in the cells or tissues. Current in silico study was done to investigate the protein-substrate interactions of Renilla muelleri, Metridia longa and Photinus pyralis luciferase with their respective substrates coelenterazine, Luciferin, and ATP. RaptorX which is an online tool was used for luciferase modeling. PyRx v9.0 was used for protein-substrate binding. Online server Cluspro was used for protein-protein docking. CASTp was used for protein active site pocket prediction. Photinus pyralis luciferase was bonded with ATP molecules through Glu83, Asp153, Asp44, Ser85, Gln87 and His171, while Photinus Pyralis luciferase was bonded with luciferin molecules through five different residues i.e. His171, Arg62, Met90, Leu63 and Val168. Photinus pyralis residues that were docked with ATP and luciferin molecules were present in N terminal domain of Photinus pyralis luciferase. In case of Renilla muelleri, catalytic residues, His285 was present in its all the docking complex. Renilla muelleri and Metridia longa luciferase were also docked with different substrate and found that efficiency of Renilla muelleri and Metridia longa luciferase was lower towards Photinus pyralis substrates as compared to their own substrate coelentereazine. According to the findings, it has been concluded that luciferase of every light emitting organism required specific (its own) substrate for proper light reaction.</p> Muhammad Muzammal Aiman Nayab Amjad Ullah Khan Saqib Ali Rustam Mehak Hayat Wasim Ullah Khan Kalsoom Begum Ayesha Urooj Muhammad Umer Farooq Qureshi Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Muzammal, Aiman Nayab, Amjad Ullah Khan, Saqib Ali Rustam, Mehak Hayat, Wasim Ullah Khan, Kalsoom Begum, Ayesha Urooj, Muhammad Umer Farooq Qureshi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 44 55 Applications and Limitations of 3D Bioprinters in Tissue Culturing: A Review http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/248 <p>3D bioprinting is an advanced technology that uses different biomaterial like hydrogels and bio-inks to develop artificial tissue cells and organs. There are three types of bioprinting techniques: Jetting-based bioprinting, extrusion based bioprinting, and integrated bioprinting. Biomaterials used in 3D bioprinter should have some ideal characteristics such as they should be biocompatible, printable, and provide mechanical and structural properties. There are different types of bio-inks, hydrogels, and growth factors used to overcome the crisis of organ shortage. Bioprinting technology is essential for the development of eleven organ systems as there is a need for organ replacement and tissue regeneration. It is possible to make complex tissue culture structures by using 3D bioprinting. The mixture of biomaterial and living cells used for bioprinting is called bio-inks. Hydrogels are one of the ideal components of biomaterials as it has similar characteristics as natural extracellular matrix and provides a hydrated environment for cells to divide. Generation and transportation of many tissues, including skin, heart tissues, cartilaginous constructs, and tracheal tissues is done by 3D bioprinting. It is used for research purposes, drug testing, and drug discovery. But our focus is to highlight the applications of 3D bioprinters in tissue engineering and the development of organ systems. Skin tissues have also been engineered to overcome complex skin treatment procedures and to save time and cost.</p> Afeefa Chaudhry Aleesha Naheed Zaima Latif Sehar Nadeem Natasha Mehmood Mishal Arzoo Copyright (c) 2022 Afeefa Chaudhry, Aleesha Naheed, Zaima Latif, Sehar Nadeem, Natasha Mehmood, Mishal Arzoo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 31 43 A Review on Pharmaceutical Waste Pollution in Water: Extent, Management and Removal Strategies http://ajlifesciences.com/ojs/index.php/ajls/article/view/238 <p>Pharmaceutical waste and presence of hazardous pollutants in them is a growing concern due to their fate, origin, higher rate of utilization and varying nature of active ingredients resulting in water contamination. However, there is few research on the graving nature of the problem. Cascading impacts on human and ecosystems can be expected from contaminated groundwater and other aquatic channels. While, various technologies used and studied for the removal/reduction/sedimentation of pharmaceutical pollutants. At the initial stages, level of toxicity should check with respect to flora, fauna, environment, and human health. Furthermore, the production of by-products from pharmaceutical pollutants should also be checked and regulated. These by-products can be much more toxic, than the original contaminants and can exert significant toxic effects. It was concluded that there should be ongoing efforts to reduce the cost associated with pharmaceutical waste and their pollutants removal processes to ensure sustainability in the environment and human being.</p> Umair Riaz Laila Shahzad Ambreen Aslam Muhammad Akram Qazi Muhammad Nasim Wajiha Anum Rehmat Ullah Madiha Mobeen Khan Ilyas Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 Umair Riaz, Laila Shahzad, Ambreen Aslam, Muhammad Akram Qazi, Muhammad Nasim, Wajiha Anum, Rehmat Ullah, Madiha Mobeen Khan, Ilyas Ahmad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 5 Issue 1 56 71