Prevalence of Enteric Fever in the Local Population of Rawalpindi And Islamabad Pakistan


  • Ijaz Ahmad
  • Hayat Khan University of Swabi
  • Gohar Rahman
  • Saddam
  • Gouhar Ali
  • Rafiullah


Keywords: Enteric Fever; Salmonella Paratyphi; Salmonella Typhi; Pakistan; Prevalence;


Enteric fever is the massive bacterial disease in global and caused by Salmonella typhi. It is known that humans are the only natural host and reservoir for S. typhi. That transmits enteric fever through the fecal-oral route through the ingestion of infected water and food. The prevalence rate is high in South Central and South-East Asian countries recorded as (>100/100,000) cases per year.  The aim of designing of the present study, there is no specific epidemiology report present at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Total of 500 blood samples were collected from patients showing sign and symptoms of enteric fever. Sample collected from different government and private hospitals, medical laboratories, and health organizations from November 2013 to April 2014. Immuno chromatographic technique (ICT) was used for the detection of enteric fever via typhoid test kit. Out of 500 samples, 368 (73.6 %) patients were found serologically negative while 132 (26.4%) were positive. Among the positive samples, 42 (31.8%) were adult samples that included 25 IgM, 12 IgG and 5 both IgM and IgG. Infected children of age 13-15 years were 30 (22.72%) with IgM 19, IgG 8 and both IgM and IgG 3. Thirty-one (31) samples were positive among children of age group 5-12 years with 15 IgM positive, 10 IgG positive and 3 both IgM and IgG positive. Furthermore, 29 (21.96 %) were positive among children of age group 1-4 years. This high incidence of enteric fever among susceptible outdoor patients and laboratories patient show that enteric fever is a serious health problem in Rawalpindi, Islamabad. Preventive measures such as vaccination, maintaining food hygiene and awareness campaign are required in the twin cities of Rawalpindi-Islamabad for the eradication of enteric fever.   



How to Cite

Ahmad, I. ., Khan, H., Rahman, G., Saddam, Ali, G. ., & Rafiullah. (2020). Prevalence of Enteric Fever in the Local Population of Rawalpindi And Islamabad Pakistan. Abasyn Journal of Life Sciences, 3(Issue 2). Retrieved from



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